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Health

Raspberries for type 1 and type 2 diabetes

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 25.02.2021
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Among the numerous types of berries, raspberries are especially popular not only for their excellent taste, but also for their undoubted benefits. And given their low glycemic index, raspberries are very suitable for diabetic diets for a diet aimed at stabilizing blood sugar levels.

The benefits and harms of raspberries for diabetes

It is not for nothing that ordinary red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) are considered a rather watery berry, since in 100 g of fresh berries the water content reaches almost 86 g, and the amount of fiber is 6.5 g. It is clear that the calorie content is low: per 100 g - 52 kcal, which is five times less than this amount of white bread, and one and a half times less than boiled potatoes. [1]

Most of all these berries contain potassium (152 mg / 100 g), followed by phosphorus (29 mg), calcium (25 mg) and magnesium (22 mg). The iron content in 100 g does not exceed 0.7 mg; almost the same amount of manganese and slightly less zinc. There is copper (0.09 mg / 100g) and selenium (0.2 μg / 100g). Among the vitamins in the first place are ascorbic acid (26.2 g / 100 g) and vitamin B4 or choline (12.3 mg / 100 g). While vitamin C protects pancreatic cells from oxidative stress, vitamin B4 not only takes part in the metabolism of carbohydrates, but also improves the state of the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas.

Vitamins such as alpha-tocopherol, niacin, pantothenic and folic acids, pyridoxine, thiamine, riboflavin, carotene (provitamin A) and vitamin K.

But in order for a positive answer to the question of whether it is possible to eat raspberries with diabetes mellitus, was as reasonable as possible and did not raise doubts, the amount of sugar should be indicated. [2]

When nutritionists recommend raspberries as a healthy food for patients with type 1, 2 and  gestational diabetes , they are guided by the fact that the berry has a low glycemic index (25) and that 100 grams of berries contain only 4.4 grams of sugars. At the same time, 53% (2.34 g) falls on fructose, in the assimilation of which insulin does not participate; 42% (1.86 g) is glucose (dextrose) and the rest is sucrose.

For comparison: in the same amount of strawberries or watermelon, sugar is about 6 g (while in watermelon 72% is in the form of fructose, and in strawberries 42%); peach - 8.6 g (fructose 65%); apricot - 9.3 g (7.6% fructose); orange - 9.4 g (27% fructose); blueberries - 7.3 g (49% fructose); dark grapes - 18.1 g (42%). [3]

Obviously, these data allow us to give the correct answer to the question, does raspberry raise sugar? Compared to other carbohydrate foods, raspberries are much less likely to cause high blood sugar levels. What's more, studies have shown that the consumption of these berries by patients with type 2 diabetes helps to reduce the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the blood and improve insulin sensitivity. This is thought to be the result of exposure to the flavone derivatives of raspberries - anthocyanins (in particular cyanidin), which are also found in blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, cherries and dark grapes.

And now a little about other biologically active components that determine the benefits of raspberries in diabetes. The presence in its composition of plant polyphenols, tannins, derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and other compounds is valuable.

Thus, the study of the potential therapeutic capabilities of the phytoestrogen-antioxidant genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), which is also present in raspberries, revealed the ability of this compound not only to reduce the formation of fat cells, but also to inhibit the transfer of glucose into them by membrane transporters (GLUT)... Experiments have also demonstrated the positive effect of genistein on the state of β-cells of the pancreas, which helps to reduce hyperglycemia. [4]

Another phenolic antioxidant is in the composition of raspberries, and this is resveratrol (everyone knows that there is a lot of it in dark grapes), which has shown not only its anti-inflammatory activity, but also the ability to reduce fasting blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin in the blood in diabetes 2 type.

Finally, raspberries contain tilyroside, a glycoside flavonoid that preliminary studies have shown may help obese diabetics by increasing the activity of the fat cell hormone adiponectin and normalizing blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels.

The harm of raspberries in diabetes can be in the presence of allergies or a violation of the metabolism of uric acid - with the deposition of its salts (urates) near the joints and gout.

It is not recommended to eat raspberries with chronic renal failure, as well as during periods of exacerbation of inflammatory diseases of the stomach and for patients with aspirin bronchial asthma (since the berries contain salicylic acid - 5 mg / 100 g). [5]

Experts warn that raspberries containing substances of the class of phytoetrogens are contraindicated in endometriosis or uterine myoma, as well as in cancer of hormone-sensitive organs: mammary glands, uterus, ovaries.

For more information on which berries are useful for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, read more in the publication -  Berries for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: which ones can and cannot be consumed?

If you are unsure of how to replace raspberries for diabetes, read:

Raspberry leaves for diabetes

Rubus idaeus leaves have been widely used as a remedy for centuries: for colds and fevers, heart problems and high blood pressure, intestinal disorders, anemia, menorrhagia, morning sickness during pregnancy and to facilitate childbirth and reduce postpartum bleeding.

Raspberry leaves contain tannins (ellagic acid derivatives) and flavonoids. The number of which is higher than in berries. It also contains organic carboxylic, phenolic and hydroxybenzoic acids; terpenoids, glycosides, etc. [6]

Raspberry leaf is a pharmacopoeial plant, and many endocrinologists advise their patients to use raspberry leaves for type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes - to reduce hyglycemia and insulin resistance - in the form of an herbal decoction, infusion, or tea.

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