Crushing kidney stones: basic methods

When kidney stones have formed, impairing the functioning of the urinary system, and all attempts to get rid of them with the help of drug therapy have been unsuccessful, one way remains - crushing kidney stones or lithotripsy.

Surgery to remove dropsy of the testicle

There is controversy over the treatment of primary hydrocele. Aspiration and sclerotherapy are described; however, hydrocelectomy or hydrocelectomy remains the treatment of choice for hydrocele.


Exposure of the joint and opening of its cavity is performed surgically, and this manipulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery is defined as arthrotomy, which can be performed with various surgical approaches.


A stapedectomy is a microsurgery in the middle ear. The operation is performed with the aim of restoring the physiological mechanism of sound transmission by completely or partially removing the stapes.


Lymphadenectomy is limited or complete, depending on the scale of the operation. The likelihood of developing complications after such a procedure is quite high. However, often the intervention allows you to stop the further spread of cancer structures, and thereby save the patient's life.


Surgical dissection, that is, opening the fibrous membrane surrounding the heart - the pericardium or pericardium, is defined as a pericardiotomy, which provides access to the heart during surgery.


One of the procedures of thoracic surgery is mediastinotomy (Latin mediastinum - mediastinum + Greek tome - section), which consists in opening direct access to the anatomical structures located in the central parts of the chest cavity.


Orchipexia is a reconstructive operation in male patients with a congenital anomaly, in which one or both testicles (more simply, the testicles) are not detected in the scrotum, that is, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism.

Opening phlegmon

To treat phlegmon, surgeons use the so-called autopsy procedure, which is performed under general or local anesthesia. The pathological cavity is opened, the purulent contents are pumped out, sanitized and the phlegmonous capsule is removed.


Hearing restoration in some patients is possible only through surgical intervention of ossiculoplasty. If the doctor believes that such an operation is necessary, then you need to agree with his opinion, as this will help to avoid complications - such as persistent hearing loss or absolute hearing loss.


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