Trace Elements

Ferritin in the blood

Ferritin is a water-soluble iron hydroxide complex with an apoferritin protein. It is found in the cells of the liver, selesinka, red bone marrow and reticulocytes.

Transferrin in the blood

Transferrin refers to beta-globulins. The main function of transferrin is transport of absorbed iron into its depot (liver, spleen), into reticulocytes and their precursors in the red bone marrow. Transferrin is able to bind ions of other metals (zinc, cobalt, etc.).

Total iron binding capacity of blood serum

The total iron-binding capacity of blood serum is the indicator of transferrin concentration. It should be taken into account that when evaluating the content of transferrin according to the results of determining the total iron binding capacity of blood serum, it is overestimated by 16-20%, since at more than half saturation of transferrin, iron binds to other proteins.

Iron in the blood

The total iron content in the human body is approximately 4.2 g. About 75-80% of the total amount of iron is a part of hemoglobin, 20-25% of iron is reserve, 5-10% are part of myoglobin, 1% is contained in respiratory enzymes, catalyzing respiration processes in cells and tissues.

Iodine in the urine

Iodine is a trace element present in nature in trace amounts. In drinking water, the content of iodine is insignificant, so the bulk of this trace element enters the human body with food. The highest concentration of iodine in seafood (approximately 800 mcg / kg); especially rich in iodine seaweed.

Copper in the urine

The analysis for copper in urine is used mainly to diagnose and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment of Wilson-Konovalov's disease. Excretion of copper in urine with Wilson-Konovalov disease is usually higher than 100 μg / day (1.57 μmol / day), but may be lower in young siblings before the development of symptoms of the disease.

Copper in the blood

Copper is one of the most important essential micronutrients necessary for human life. In the adult body contains 1.57-3.14 mmol of copper, and half of this amount falls on muscles and bones, 10% - on liver tissue.

Chlorides in urine

The amount of chlorine in the urine depends on its content in the food. In infants with urine, very little chlorine is excreted, since its content in breast milk is low. The transition to mixed nutrition leads to a significant increase in the content of chlorine in the urine. Its amount in the urine increases in accordance with the ever increasing use of table salt.

Chlorides in the blood

The total chlorine content of a healthy person with a body weight of 70 kg is approximately 2000 mmol, i.e. 30 mmol / kg. Chlorine is the main extracellular cation. In the body, it is mainly in the ionized state, in the form of salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc.

Magnesium in the blood

Magnesium is the fourth most element in the human body after potassium, sodium, calcium and the second most abundant element in the cell after potassium. The human body contains about 25 g of magnesium, 60% of it is part of the bone tissue, and most of the rest of the stock is in cells. Only 1% of the total magnesium is contained in the extracellular fluid.


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