The effect of creams on freckles that contain the phenolic hydroquinone derivative (Achromine, A-Ret HC, Expigment, etc.) is based on its ability to reduce local melanogenesis by inhibiting the thyrokinase enzyme responsible for the production of melanin and other pigments in the body. In addition, hydroquinone inhibits the production of nucleic acids in pigment cells (melanocytes).
In addition to hydroquinone, the facial cream from freckles A-Ret HC contains synthetic corticosteroids (hydrocortisone) and retinoid tretinol. Gyrocortisone is an anti-inflammatory and antiallergic agent that penetrates the membranes of epidermal cells and stimulates protein-enzyme synthesis, activating intracellular metabolism. A retinoic acid (tretinoin) and all its derivatives contribute to an increase in the synthesis of cutaneous collagen and exfoliation (exfoliation) of skin keratin cells, including those that are excessively pigmented.
In the cream of Expigment, the concentration of hydroquinone is too high - 4%, and avobenzone and camphor are used as sunscreen.
Pharmacodynamics of creams without hydroquinone is also based on the suppression of thyrokinase, which is provided by other substances.
So, the face cream from freckles Ideal Whitening (Belita-Viteks) clarifies melanin due to the presence of leaf extract of bearberry, phenolic glycoside-rich arbutin (hydroquinone-β-D-glycoside), that is, natural glycosylated hydroquinone. Antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors are citric and ferulic acids present in the cream.
Also in this bleaching agent is the Lumiskin complex (Sederma, France), which reduces the activity of tyrosinase and consists of: an extract of the bark of the South American tree Peumus boldus (diacetylolide), an improved variant of silicone (Crodamol) and ethoxylated fatty alcohol (Brij S10 emulsifier).
Cow's cream promotes the clarification of freckles, which is provided by ascorbic acid (vitamin C suppresses the formation of melanin), licorice root extracts naked (contains phytoestrogens glabridin inhibiting the production of pigments) and thick-leaved balan (contains glycoside arbutin).
In the Depiwhite Advanced Depigmenting cream, components such as synthetic arbutin, parsley extract (containing luteolin, beta-carotene, vitamin C), combined with kojic acid, affect hyperpigmentation. This acid (a byproduct of fermentation of brewing rice) enhances the anti-pigment properties of other components, more often all is used in the form of a more stable dipalmitate of kojic acid. Cream Depiwhite Advanced also contains exfoliants - exfoliating alpha hydroxy acids (AHA), primarily, lactic and glycolic.
Cream for freckles and pigment spots Eveline also has among its active ingredients extracts of licorice root, parsley, lemon, lactic acid and keratolytic properties of lactate ammonium (synthetic lactic acid).
In addition to the already mentioned ascorbic and kojic acids, licorice root extract and alpha hydroxy acids, Meladerm Skin Lightener face cream from freckles contains the skin brightening cosmetic complex Gigawhite (manufacturer Centerchem, USA). This complex consists of extracts of peppermint, lemon balm, wheat germ sprouts, forest mallow, cuff, spring primrose, yarrow, veronica. Also included are alpha-arbutin, root extracts of mulberry (mulberry) and Indian gooseberry (embryos), vitamins B3 and E, lecithin, glycerin, water, preservatives and several types of parabens.
Almost identical composition has a Swiss cream from freckles and pigment spots GigaWhite 3-Day Whitening Cream and its Polish counterpart Clarena Giga White Day.
The composition of the cream Clarilys (Lysaskin Laboratoires, France) also introduced vitamin C, arbutin and exfoliating fruit acids. In addition, there is in this agent the substance Urodium (a mixture of urea with sodium chloride), which contributes to a deeper penetration of the cream into the skin.
Sunscreen for freckles Photoderma AR Cream SPF provides skin protection (including in the presence of rosacea and vascular network) and has in the list of active ingredients vegetable oils, kelp extract and ginkgo biloba, soy lecithin, glycerin. And as substances used to protect against ultraviolet, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and ethyl hexyl methoxy cinnamate are used.
Cream-barrier Floresan SPF 30 from natural ingredients contains marigold extract, coconut, almond oil and jojoba oil; also available in the composition of silicone and dye. Waterproof cream barrier Floresan full block (from sunburn) contains tocopherol and aloe vera extract, which nourish the skin.