Causes of liver cancer
Among the risk factors contributing to the development of a disease such as primary liver cancer, there are four groups:
- factors related to nutrition;
- helminthic invasions;
- infectious disease;
In addition, trauma, biliary tract disease, hemochromatosis, hereditary predisposition may be important.
Factors related to nutrition
One of the important etiological factors is the kwashiorkor. In the literature, this disease has several names: child pellagra, malignant malnutrition, fatty degeneration. Kwashiorkor is usually observed in children and in early adolescence, if the food ration contains an insufficient number of proteins with a predominance of carbohydrates. There comes fat and protein dystrophy, atrophy of the hepatic tissue, in later stages - necrosis.
Alcoholic drinks with constant use can contribute to the development of the disease.
In recent years, a large number of studies have appeared that indicate the role of aflatoxin in the development of a malignant tumor. Aflatoxin is a metabolite of the ubiquitous saprophytic fungus Aspergellus flavus. Aflatoxin enters the human body with food damaged by the fungus-saprophyte, which produces this toxin. Studies have shown a high content of aflatoxin in dry oysters, soybeans, peanuts, etc.
Most often, the development of a malignant tumor is facilitated by the parasitizing worms Opistorhus felineus, Schistosomiasis, Clonorchis sinensis and others in the human body.
Onistorhoz is distributed in the river basins of the Dnieper, Kama, Volga, Don, Northern Dvina, Pechora, Neva and Siberia - Ob, Irtysh, as well as in the Korean peninsula, Japan and China. Infected with this helminth when used thermally untreated, raw thawed or frozen fish.
Schistosomiasis is observed in Egypt, Equatorial Africa, as well as in Brazil, some places in the PRC, Venezuela, Japan.
Clonorhosis affects, in addition to the hepatobiliary system, and the pancreas. The parasite is distributed in China, the countries of the Korean peninsula, Japan and the Far East.
Of the other helminthic lesions, mention should be made of echinococcosis.
The risk of a malignant tumor is increased by such diseases as viral hepatitis, malaria, syphilis.