Pharmacodynamics of warming and anesthetic ointments depends on the ingredients in their composition. Efkamon ointment contains clove and mustard oil, camphor, bitter pepper extract (containing alkaloid capsaicin), menthol, methyl salicylate. Active substances of Bom-Benge ointment are methyl salicylate and menthol.
Ointment when stretching muscles Capsicum contains camphor, benzilnicotinate, vanillononamide (synthetic analog capsaicin) and turpentine oil (turpentine). The main ingredient of the Espoo ointment is capsaicin, which is also contained in the Nikoflex ointment (reinforced with the nicotinic acid derivative ethylnicotinate). A mechanism of action of the preparation Finalgon provides synthetic capsaicin (vanillylnonamide) and a nicotinic acid derivative in the form of butoxyethyl ether, which causes the effect of hypersensitization of epidermal cells. Benzyl nicotinate is an antispasmodic substance that reduces vascular and muscle tone.
Menthol and camphor stimulate the cutaneous receptors of peripheral nerve fibers, which leads to a reflex response in the form of release of mediators that dilate capillaries, that is, blood circulation in damaged tissues is activated. Camphor narrows the capillaries and irritates the cutaneous thermoreceptors of the sympathetic nerve endings, distracting the neurotransmitters from the pain receptors.
When chemical interaction of capsaicin with sensory neurons of the skin type TRPV1 occurs, they are depolarized, and a signal about local increase in temperature is transmitted along the TRP-ion channels, causing a burning sensation and a reflex rush of blood to the capillaries of the skin to reduce it.
Methyl salicylate (methyl ester of salicylic acid) exerts a local irritant effect on the skin receptors, and, as NSAIDs, it acts anti-inflammatory - by indirect suppression of the expression of the enzyme COX.
Heparin ointment contains sodium heparin, which acts as a decongestant and anti-inflammatory agent, as well as analgesic benzocaine (anesthesin).
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory ointments when stretching the muscles Ketoprofen (Fastum-gel, etc.), Ibuprofen (Dip Rilif and others), Diclofenac (Diklak-gel, etc.), Nimesulide contain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substances - derivatives of propionic acid (ketoprofen), phenylpropionic acid (ibuprofen), alpha-toluic acid (diclofenac sodium), para-aminobenzosulphanyl acid (nimesulide).
Their pharmacodynamics is the inhibition of COX enzymes, which are involved in the synthesis of mediators of the inflammatory reaction (prostaglandins). Anesthetic effects of ointments based on NSAIDs are provided by lowering the pressure on the interstitial nerve endings due to a reduction in the volume of intercellular exudate in damaged tissues. And nimesulide relieves pain by suppressing the activity of mast cells, as well as affecting the cytoplasmic receptors of steroid hormones.
Chinese ointments when stretching Tiger Balm and Zheng gu-shui help reduce pain and swelling due to the presence of camphor, menthol, and various plant extracts and essential oils in their composition.