Some types of malignant breast tumors begin directly in the glands, but the majority in the ducts and canals that connect the lobules with the nipple. There are several types of invasive cancer, consider them:
- Invasive protocol cancer - develops in the milk ducts. Cancer cells gradually affect adipose tissue and can enter the lymphatic system and blood flow. This type of disease quickly metastasizes to organs and tissues. Protocol cancer is the most common type of invasive breast injury and accounts for 80% of all malignant diseases.
- Pre-invasive protocol cancer - develops and remains in the milk ducts, does not affect adjacent tissues and organs. Without early diagnosis and effective treatment, it can grow into an invasive ductal form.
- Invasive lobular breast cancer - occurs in 15% of cases of invasive cancer. It develops in lobes and ducts, can metastasize through the body, affecting healthy organs and tissues. The main symptom of pathology is pain in the mammary gland and densification, which is determined by palpation.
Invasive Protective Breast Cancer
Invasive breast cancer is the most common type of breast cancer. It develops in the milk ducts and has a huge number of different types of structure, which depend on the constituent cells. An important role in the development and treatment of cancer is the degree of differentiation of tumor cells.
Most often, the cancer of the cancer occurs in the representatives of the older age group. The tumor does not manifest itself for a long time, even at palpation it is not always possible to grope the seal, let alone determine its adhesion to the tissues and displacement. With further progression, the cancer spreads to the nasal zone, which leads to deformation of the nipple or areola shape, secretions of different color and consistency. Consider the main types of invasive protocol breast cancer.
It consists of monomorphic cells of small size that develop inside the duct in the form of cribrose, micro-capillary and other structures. Cells have nuclei of the same size and rare mitotic figures. Inside the affected ducts, flattened cells may appear that indicate tissue necrosis.
- Intermediate degree of differentiation
Cancer cells are similar to low-grade invasive breast cancer, they form various structures and can contain intracavitary necrosis. This category includes tumors that have an intermediate degree of nuclear apathy, while necrosis can both be absent and present.
The neoplasm can have more than 5 mm in diameter, consists of morphological structures typical for intra-cellular cancer. Tumor cells lining the entire surface of the duct, forming cribrose, micropapillary and other structures. For this type of cancer is characterized by the presence of necrotic masses, i.e., gum arabesclerosis.
I diagnose invasive ductal cancer with the help of mammography. If the results of the study are not considered reliable by a doctor for confirmation of a malignant disease, a woman undergoes a biopsy. In the case of protocol lesions of the breast, a fine needle aspiration biopsy and a thick-needle biopsy are used to take tissue from suspicious areas of the gland. The samples obtained are examined under a microscope and checked for hormonal receptors. Note that a biopsy is performed to diagnose, not remove, the tumor.
The diagnosis of invasive protocol cancer poses a threat to life. Without timely treatment, the tumor metastasizes throughout the body, affecting healthy organs and tissues. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the tumor, radiation and chemotherapy. In addition, a woman may be prescribed hormone therapy, to prevent recurrence of the disease or the re-birth of cancer into another form.
Lobular invasive breast cancer
Lobular invasive breast cancer occurs in 15% of all cases of breast cancers. Most often it is diagnosed in elderly women, while half have symmetrical lesions of both glands. Pathology is characterized by high multicentricity - 60-80% and bilateral lesion - 30-65%.
The first symptoms of lobular cancers can be determined independently by self-examination of the breast. The main symptom of the disease is a lump or dense neoplasm.
- Most often, the seal is found in the upper outer quarter of the breast.
- A tumor can occur both in one and at once in two glands.
- With palpation, the cone has uneven contours, is painless.
- At a late stage lobular cancer causes skin changes, the gland tissues are retracted and wrinkled.
Classic signs of invasive lobular breast cancer: the fibrous stroma is well developed, trabecular cords of anaplastic cells occur around the healthy lobules and ducts. Cancer cells can be small, single-morphic or large with clear nucleoli. In addition to the classical type, they also distinguish a solid, alveolar, mastitis-like, tubular cancer. In any case, the morphological picture of tumor lesion requires careful study.
To diagnose lobular invasive cancer, a cytological examination is performed, which most often gives a false-negative result. This is due to the fact that the composition of the punctate can be meager, and the cells and monomorphic nuclei are small. The assumption of lobular cancer arises when, when puncture the neoplasm, clinical signs indicate its malignancy and in the smears there are signs of cancer. In this case, the patient is re-punctured, which allows to reveal the spaced-out cells with coarse nuclei, which is typical for lobular invasive cancer. Aspirate can be bloody, which makes it difficult to study the smear, since small cells are mixed with red blood cells.
The most characteristic sign of the disease is the formation of chains of 3-4 cells. If several such groups were found in the cytological study, then it is possible to diagnose lobular invasive breast cancer. Treat it with hormonal therapy and surgery. After this, the patient is exposed to radiation and chemotherapy to prevent recurrence of the disease and the destruction of possible metastases.
Invasive unspecified breast cancer
Invasive unspecified breast cancer indicates that the morphologist can not determine the type of tumor. In order to determine the protocol or lobular type of neoplasm, an immunohistochemical study is performed. Consider the main types of invasive unspecified lesions.
It is characterized by a weak invasiveness and a large neoplasm in volume. It occurs in 5-10% of malignant tumors.
In its current and symptoms it resembles mastitis. In the chest, there is a condensation, on the skin redness develops, the body temperature rises. Occurs in 5-10% of cases.
- Infiltrating ductal cancer
It occurs in 70% of cases of breast cancer. Rapidly metastasizes, growing into neighboring organs and tissues in the form of cords and nests.
- Paget's cancer (lesion of the nipple and areola of the breast)
The main symptoms of the disease are lesions of the nipple, which resembles eczema, that is, an allergic disease.
Erz-positive (hormone-dependent) tumors most often occur during the postmenopause. At the same time, 60-70% of primary cancer lesions have estrogen receptors. Erz-negative neoplasms occur in the pre-menopause. The most favorable prognosis is put for medullary cancer. A less favorable prediction is Paget's cancer, protocol, and lobular cancer.