Invasive breast cancer is a disease that is characterized by the spread of the tumor to the lymph nodes and other organs and tissues.
Let's consider features of a pathology, the basic signs, methods of diagnostics, treatment and the forecast on convalescence.
Causes of the invasive breast cancer
Invasive cancer develops from epithelial cells and goes beyond a certain structure. For example, invasive protocol cancer develops from atypical cells in the walls of the lactiferous duct. But the tumor does not remain within the lobule, but permeates it, affects fatty and other tissues. That is, malignant formation sprouts into normal, healthy tissues, hitting them. It is the invasiveness or non-invasiveness of the tumor that determines the tactics of treatment and its effectiveness. Invasive or infiltrative cancer is carried with blood flow through the lymph vessels, organs and tissues of the body.
Breast cancer can appear in any person, from this pathology no one is immune. The disease does not depend on age, ethnic group or gender. But it is among women that he most often arises. The female breast consists of fat, connective and fibrous tissue, gland, ducts and 15-20 lobules. In the chest are also lymphadenitis, which protect the body from pathologies, catch bacteria, harmful substances and cancer cells.
The causes of invasive breast cancer depend on many factors. The disease develops against the background of premalignant diseases of the body, for example, mastopathy or fibroadenoma. Let us consider in more detail the causes of invasive malignant breast lesions.
One of the causes of cancer is mastopathy. This is a pathological condition of the gland, which arises from hormonal imbalance in the body. Most often occurs in women aged 30-40 years. When mastopathy pain is a constant concern and can be accompanied by secretions from the nipples. In the chest appear tumor-like nodules (in structure more dense than the gland tissues). In the future, this leads to more serious deformations and changes in the tissues of the organ and, as a result, invasive cancer.
This pathology most often occurs in girls and young women. In the chest appear nodal formations of a benign nature - dense nodules of round shape with a smooth surface. But because of hormonal failure, injuries or lack of treatment, neoplasms begin to increase, affect healthy tissue and transform into a cancerous tumor.
Interruption of the first pregnancy leads to inflammation of the uterine appendages, a violation of the hormonal background and even infertility. Abortion not only interrupts pregnancy, but also causes the reverse development of glandular breast cells. This leads to the formation of seals, from which invasive cancer develops.
The reasons for invasive breast cancer include the rejection of breastfeeding. This leads to the appearance of seals, which can acquire a malignant form. Irregular sex life or its absence disrupts the hormonal balance in the body, which negatively affects the condition of the mammary glands and the entire reproductive system as a whole.
Symptoms of the invasive breast cancer
Symptoms of invasive breast cancer are manifested in different ways. Thus, some women do not have any symptoms in the first stages of the disease. Others feel discomfort and pain when trying to palpate the mammary glands.
That is, the symptomatology of malignant breast diseases, is individual for every woman. But there are a number of warning signs that can signal from a cancerous lesion.
A small seal or bump that holds throughout the menstrual cycle.
The mammary glands vary in size, contour or shape.
Appear bloody or light liquid discharge from the nipples, causing painful sensations or burning.
Change in skin color on the nipple or gland, that is, a distinct difference in the area on the chest.
Change in the appearance of the skin: wrinkled skin, inflammation, peeling, marble-like areas.
This kind of changes can be diagnosed independently on examination and palpation of the breast. Invasive breast cancer can occur at any age, older women are at risk. According to medical statistics, invasive cancer is diagnosed in 1 in 8 women aged 45 years and in every 3 over 55 years.
Some types of malignant breast tumors begin directly in the glands, but the majority in the ducts and canals that connect the lobules with the nipple. There are several types of invasive cancer, consider them:
Invasive protocol cancer - develops in the milk ducts. Cancer cells gradually affect adipose tissue and can enter the lymphatic system and blood flow. This type of disease quickly metastasizes to organs and tissues. Protocol cancer is the most common type of invasive breast injury and accounts for 80% of all malignant diseases.
Pre-invasive protocol cancer - develops and remains in the milk ducts, does not affect adjacent tissues and organs. Without early diagnosis and effective treatment, it can grow into an invasive ductal form.
Invasive lobular breast cancer - occurs in 15% of cases of invasive cancer. It develops in lobes and ducts, can metastasize through the body, affecting healthy organs and tissues. The main symptom of pathology is pain in the mammary gland and densification, which is determined by palpation.
Invasive Protective Breast Cancer
Invasive breast cancer is the most common type of breast cancer. It develops in the milk ducts and has a huge number of different types of structure, which depend on the constituent cells. An important role in the development and treatment of cancer is the degree of differentiation of tumor cells.
Most often, the cancer of the cancer occurs in the representatives of the older age group. The tumor does not manifest itself for a long time, even at palpation it is not always possible to grope the seal, let alone determine its adhesion to the tissues and displacement. With further progression, the cancer spreads to the nasal zone, which leads to deformation of the nipple or areola shape, secretions of different color and consistency. Consider the main types of invasive protocol breast cancer.
It consists of monomorphic cells of small size that develop inside the duct in the form of cribrose, micro-capillary and other structures. Cells have nuclei of the same size and rare mitotic figures. Inside the affected ducts, flattened cells may appear that indicate tissue necrosis.
Intermediate degree of differentiation
Cancer cells are similar to low-grade invasive breast cancer, they form various structures and can contain intracavitary necrosis. This category includes tumors that have an intermediate degree of nuclear apathy, while necrosis can both be absent and present.
The neoplasm can have more than 5 mm in diameter, consists of morphological structures typical for intra-cellular cancer. Tumor cells lining the entire surface of the duct, forming cribrose, micropapillary and other structures. For this type of cancer is characterized by the presence of necrotic masses, i.e., gum arabesclerosis.
I diagnose invasive ductal cancer with the help of mammography. If the results of the study are not considered reliable by a doctor for confirmation of a malignant disease, a woman undergoes a biopsy. In the case of protocol lesions of the breast, a fine needle aspiration biopsy and a thick-needle biopsy are used to take tissue from suspicious areas of the gland. The samples obtained are examined under a microscope and checked for hormonal receptors. Note that a biopsy is performed to diagnose, not remove, the tumor.
The diagnosis of invasive protocol cancer poses a threat to life. Without timely treatment, the tumor metastasizes throughout the body, affecting healthy organs and tissues. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the tumor, radiation and chemotherapy. In addition, a woman may be prescribed hormone therapy, to prevent recurrence of the disease or the re-birth of cancer into another form.
Lobular invasive breast cancer
Lobular invasive breast cancer occurs in 15% of all cases of breast cancers. Most often it is diagnosed in elderly women, while half have symmetrical lesions of both glands. Pathology is characterized by high multicentricity - 60-80% and bilateral lesion - 30-65%.
The first symptoms of lobular cancers can be determined independently by self-examination of the breast. The main symptom of the disease is a lump or dense neoplasm.
Most often, the seal is found in the upper outer quarter of the breast.
A tumor can occur both in one and at once in two glands.
With palpation, the cone has uneven contours, is painless.
At a late stage lobular cancer causes skin changes, the gland tissues are retracted and wrinkled.
Classic signs of invasive lobular breast cancer: the fibrous stroma is well developed, trabecular cords of anaplastic cells occur around the healthy lobules and ducts. Cancer cells can be small, single-morphic or large with clear nucleoli. In addition to the classical type, they also distinguish a solid, alveolar, mastitis-like, tubular cancer. In any case, the morphological picture of tumor lesion requires careful study.
To diagnose lobular invasive cancer, a cytological examination is performed, which most often gives a false-negative result. This is due to the fact that the composition of the punctate can be meager, and the cells and monomorphic nuclei are small. The assumption of lobular cancer arises when, when puncture the neoplasm, clinical signs indicate its malignancy and in the smears there are signs of cancer. In this case, the patient is re-punctured, which allows to reveal the spaced-out cells with coarse nuclei, which is typical for lobular invasive cancer. Aspirate can be bloody, which makes it difficult to study the smear, since small cells are mixed with red blood cells.
The most characteristic sign of the disease is the formation of chains of 3-4 cells. If several such groups were found in the cytological study, then it is possible to diagnose lobular invasive breast cancer. Treat it with hormonal therapy and surgery. After this, the patient is exposed to radiation and chemotherapy to prevent recurrence of the disease and the destruction of possible metastases.
Invasive unspecified breast cancer
Invasive unspecified breast cancer indicates that the morphologist can not determine the type of tumor. In order to determine the protocol or lobular type of neoplasm, an immunohistochemical study is performed. Consider the main types of invasive unspecified lesions.
It is characterized by a weak invasiveness and a large neoplasm in volume. It occurs in 5-10% of malignant tumors.
In its current and symptoms it resembles mastitis. In the chest, there is a condensation, on the skin redness develops, the body temperature rises. Occurs in 5-10% of cases.
Infiltrating ductal cancer
It occurs in 70% of cases of breast cancer. Rapidly metastasizes, growing into neighboring organs and tissues in the form of cords and nests.
Paget's cancer (lesion of the nipple and areola of the breast)
The main symptoms of the disease are lesions of the nipple, which resembles eczema, that is, an allergic disease.
Erz-positive (hormone-dependent) tumors most often occur during the postmenopause. At the same time, 60-70% of primary cancer lesions have estrogen receptors. Erz-negative neoplasms occur in the pre-menopause. The most favorable prognosis is put for medullary cancer. A less favorable prediction is Paget's cancer, protocol, and lobular cancer.
Diagnostics of the invasive breast cancer
Diagnosis of invasive breast cancer begins with self-examination. As a rule, in the process of palpation of the breast, it is possible to identify seals, knots, skin changes, papilla discharge and other signs indicating the severity of the pathology, its possible malignancy.
Mammography is the most common and most informative method for diagnosing mammary glands. Allows to reveal any pathologies, even at early stages of development.
Ultrasound examination - visualizes the tumor, allows you to determine the size of the tumor and the features of the vascular bed.
Magnetic resonance imaging - with the help of this method it is possible to obtain a high resolution image, which allows to determine the features of the tumor.
Biopsy is a diagnostic method based on taking material for histological examination. By its results, it is possible to judge the nature and type of neoplasm.
Doktografiya is an x-ray study that identifies tumors with a size of 5 mm.
Treatment of invasive breast cancer begins with a full diagnosis. The treatment options completely depend on the stage of the disease, the localization of the neoplasm and its morphological structure. Therapy should be comprehensive, so it can include surgery, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Surgical treatment is the main method of therapy by which a malignant tumor is removed from the breast, thereby preventing its further growth and metastasis.
Radiation therapy and radiotherapy - conducted after surgery, can increase the effectiveness of treatment by 70%. The irradiation is mandatory if the tumor is more than 5 cm and if the lymph nodes are damaged. These methods destroy distant metastases and prevent the recurrence of invasive cancer.
Chemotherapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy - refer to the systemic methods of treatment. Chemotherapy is performed with a neoplasm greater than 2 cm and in the absence of the receptors of progesterone or estrogen in the gland tissues. If the receptors are present, then hormonal therapy is used for treatment.
The choice of treatment for invasive breast cancer is affected by the size and location of the tumor, the results of diagnostic methods, laboratory tests and other studies conducted on cancer cells.
The status of menopause, general health, age and personal preferences of the patient are the final factors in the choice of treatment.
A physician can use both a single method and their complex. The main goal of the treatment is to achieve complete removal of cancer cells from the body. Today, invasive breast cancer can be cured with minimal consequences for the body. Many medical centers conduct modern clinical trials that allow to make standard treatment more effective, which means to increase the chances of recovery.
Prevention of invasive breast cancer - this is a regular examination at the mammal and breast self-examination. And the earlier the breast examinations are carried out, the better. Doctors recommend visiting a gynecologist and mammologist from the very beginning of puberty. But with the advent of menopause and the extinction of the function of the ovaries, a doctor's visit must be attended. Since the older the woman becomes, the more attention must be given to the state of health. Prevention of invasive breast cancer is a complete revision of the lifestyle. Without this, it is impossible to prevent the disease.
A healthy lifestyle is one of the main factors affecting the risk of malignant diseases, including invasive cancer. Rejection of bad habits, regular exercise and ability to fight negative emotions protect the body from any diseases.
Proper nutrition provides the body with the intake of vitamins, minerals and trace elements, necessary for normal functioning.
Regular sex life with a regular partner and the birth of the first child under the age of 30 also apply to the prevention of cancer.
Breastfeeding is another factor that prevents the risk of developing breast cancer. According to medical statistics, women who have 2 or more children and who have breastfed are less likely to encounter invasive cancer and any other malignant lesions of the breast.
The prognosis of invasive breast cancer depends on the results of treatment and the implementation of preventive measures. The risk of this pathology depends on the age of the woman. In the risk zone, patients are 60-65 years old, and over the past 5-10 years, the number of cancer-affected breast cancer has increased by almost 40%. Invasive breast lesion has a high mortality rate.
That is why many countries have screening programs that make it possible to detect cancer at an early stage. If the disease was diagnosed at the I-II stage, this in 90% of cases leads to recovery. That is, the prognosis for recovery depends on the stage of malignant lesion. So, if the tumor is found in the first stage, the survival rate is 90%, in the second stage 70%, in the third stage 47%, and on the fourth stage - about 16%. The pathology, found at later stages, practically does not give in to treatment. The prognosis is significantly worsened by the presence of metastases and lesions of the lymph nodes.
Invasive breast cancer is a disease that can be prevented. Constant palpation and examination of the mammary glands make it possible to detect the compaction in time and begin treatment. A healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition, regular sex life and a minimum of stress is a guarantee of women's health.
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