In the initial stage of the development of the disease, it is sometimes sufficient to follow the rules of nutrition and to engage in special physical exercises, without the use of medications. It is important to bring the body weight back to normal, this will help restore the carbohydrate metabolism and stabilize the sugar level.
Treatment of subsequent stages of pathology requires the administration of medications.
Patients with type 2 diabetes are usually prescribed antidiabetic drugs for internal use. Reception of such medications is carried out at least once a day. Depending on the severity of the condition, the doctor can apply not one remedy, but a combination of drugs.
The most common antidiabetic drugs:
- tolbutamide (pramidex) - is able to act on the pancreas, activating the secretion of insulin. It is most suitable for elderly patients with compensatory and subcompensatory state of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among the possible side effects - allergic reaction and transient jaundice;
- glipizide - with caution used to treat elderly, debilitated and emaciated patients with insufficient adrenal and pituitary function;
- Mannil - enhances the sensitivity of receptors that perceive insulin. Increases the production of their own insulin pancreas. The drug should be taken with one tablet, gently increasing the dosage if necessary;
- metformin - does not affect the level of insulin in the body, but is able to change pharmacodynamics by reducing the ratio of bound insulin and free insulin. It is often prescribed to patients with obesity and obesity. It is not used in the treatment of patients with impaired renal function;
- acarbose - inhibits the processes of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine and, in this connection, reduces the increase in the concentration of sugar in the blood after taking carbohydrate food. The medication should not be prescribed for chronic intestinal diseases, as well as during pregnancy;
- magnesium preparations - stimulate the production of insulin by the pancreas, regulate the level of sugar in the body.
Also allow the use of combinations of drugs, for example:
- application of metformin with glipizide;
- the use of metformin with insulin;
- The combination of metformin with thiazolidinedione or nateglinide.
Unfortunately, in most people with type 2 diabetes, the medications listed above gradually lose their effectiveness. In such situations it is necessary to switch to the use of insulin products.
Insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus may be prescribed temporarily (in certain conditions) or permanently when the previous therapy with tableted drugs is ineffective.
Undoubtedly, starting insulin therapy is necessary only with the appointment of a doctor by a doctor. He will choose the necessary dosage and plan a treatment regimen.
Insulin can be prescribed in order to make it as easy as possible to compensate for the level of sugar in the blood in order to prevent the development of complications of the disease. In what cases can a doctor transfer medication to insulin therapy:
- with unmotivated fast loss of body weight;
- with the development of complicated manifestations of the disease;
- with insufficient compensation of pathology with the usual intake of sugar-reducing medications.
The insulin preparation is determined by the treating doctor. This can be a rapid, intermediate or prolonged insulin, which is injected by subcutaneous injection in accordance with the proposed treatment scheme.
The goal of the exercises for type 2 diabetes is to influence the stabilization of blood sugar level, to activate the action of insulin, to improve the functionality of the cardiovascular and respiratory system, to stimulate working capacity. In addition, exercise is an excellent prevention of vascular pathologies.
Exercises can be prescribed in all forms of diabetes. With the development of coronary heart disease or a heart attack on a background of diabetes, gymnastic exercises change, taking into account these diseases.
Contraindications to physical activities can be:
- high blood sugar (more than 16.5 mmol / liter);
- acetone in urine;
- precomatous condition.
Physical exercises in patients who are on bed rest, but not in the stage of decompensation, are carried out in a supine position. The rest of the patients spend their time sitting or sitting.
Begin classes with standard exercises for the muscles of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk without burdening. Next, connect classes using resistance and burden, using an expander, dumbbells (up to 2 kg), or a fitness ball.
A good effect is observed from breathing exercises. Dosage walking, cycling, rowing, swimming, skiing are also welcome.
It is very important that the patient, who engages in physical education himself, pay attention to his condition. When developing a feeling of hunger, sudden weakness, shivering in the limbs, you should finish physical exercises and eat. After the normalization of the condition for the next day, resumption of work is allowed, however, slightly reducing the load.
Despite the intake of drugs that regulate blood sugar, the dietary way to diabetes is extremely important. Sometimes the mild forms of the disease can be controlled only by diet, even without resorting to the use of medications. Among the well-known therapeutic tables, the diet for type 2 diabetes is defined as diet No. 9. The prescriptions of this diet are aimed at restoring the disturbed metabolic processes in the body.
Nutrition for type 2 diabetes should be balanced and given the caloric intake of food. The optimal daily intake of calories depends on the body weight:
- normal weight - from 1600 to 2500 kcal;
- excess weight - from 1300 to 1500 kcal;
- Obesity II-III degree - from 1000 to 1200 kcal;
- obesity of the IV degree - from 600 to 900 kcal.
But you can not always limit yourself in calories. For example, with kidney diseases, severe arrhythmias, mental disorders, gout, severe liver disease, food should be nutritious.
It is recommended to give up fast carbohydrates, limit the intake of fat and salt.