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Health

Antipyretic drugs

To date, the market presents a huge number of various antipyretic agents. We all know that at low body temperature (up to 37.5 degrees), doctors do not recommend knocking it down, especially during treatment of flu or cold. But there are cases when there is simply no way to avoid fever-reducing drugs.

Indications of the antipyretics

Many of us take medical measures to lower the temperature immediately after the appearance of unpleasant symptoms of colds, flu or other ailments. But this is not entirely correct. If there is a need to reduce body temperature in children, the intake of antipyretic drugs can be prescribed by a doctor in such cases:

  1. If there was an ache in the body and a headache, and the temperature of the baby suddenly rose to 39 degrees.
  2. When febrile seizures occur and the temperature rises to 38 degrees.
  3. For the treatment of lung and heart diseases with an increase in temperature to 38 degrees and above.
  4. If during the first three months of life the baby suddenly has a fever.

For the treatment of adult patients, it is necessary to start taking such medicines, if the body temperature rises above 38.5 degrees, the body appears malaise, the head hurts, nausea or vomiting occurs.

Antipyretics for angina

Angina is an infectious disease, in which the temperature often rises. The temperature during angina can be subfebrile (not above 38 degrees) and febrile (from 38 to 39 degrees). Usually, already on the fourth or fifth day of the disease, the high temperature begins to subside.

First of all, you need to remember that subfebrile temperature during a sore throat is not recommended. Doctors believe that the patient's body, thus, is fighting infection. But febrile temperature should be knocked down. At not too high rates (up to 38 degrees) paracetamol, analgin, ibuprofen helps. Drugs with these active ingredients should be in each family medicine chest. But aspirin, which is so often used to reduce body temperature, during the sore throat is prohibited. It can cause serious complications, especially in children (Reye's syndrome).

Next, we will consider several known antipyretic medicines for angina.

Grippostad. The drug is based on two active components: ascorbic acid and paracetamol. Available in powder form. Paracetamol has an effective antipyretic and analgesic effect, and ascorbic acid helps to normalize redox processes.

The dosage of the drug is determined by the attending physician. It depends on the condition of the patient, as well as his body weight and age. In one dose (one packet of powder) there is 600 mg of paracetamol. Usually one packet is given every six hours.

If the patient has been diagnosed with phenylketonuria, portal hypertension, glucose deficiency, acute or chronic kidney and liver diseases, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, it is forbidden to take Grippostad. It should be taken with caution along with other medicines in which paracetamol is present.

Taking this medication can cause the development of allergic reactions, epigastric pain, nausea, thrombocytopenia, anemia, agranulocytosis.

Nurofen. Drug based on the active ingredient of ibuprofen. It differs with antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effect.

If the patient has diagnosed acute or chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach or / and duodenum, Nurofen tablets must be taken with food. Drink the drug is recommended no more than one tablet three to four times in 24 hours. Drink the preparation with sufficient liquid, preferably with milk. Do not exceed the maximum daily dose - 6 tablets.

If the patient has been diagnosed with an allergy to ibuprofen, bronchial asthma, stomach and duodenal ulcer, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, heart disease, abnormal liver and kidney function, hemophilia, intolerance to fructose, Nurofen is prohibited. Do not take pregnant women and children until six years of age.

Note that taking Nurofen with acetylsalicylic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is prohibited. Take caution with tablets with thrombolytic agents and anticoagulants.

This medication can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, allergies, agranulocytosis, jaundice, nausea, diarrhea, colitis, hepatic insufficiency, peptic ulcer, bronchial ulcer, allergic rhinitis.

Analgin. Analgetic, a derivative of pyrazolone. It differs with antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effect.

Dosage with Analginum is as follows: no more than 500 mg of the drug is divided into two or three doses in 24 hours. The daily dose can not exceed 3 g of the drug. For the treatment of children, the dosage is determined according to the age and body weight of the patient.

If the patient has been diagnosed with intolerance to analgin, acute or chronic liver or kidney pathologies, blood diseases, glucose deficiency, take the drug is prohibited. Analgin tablets can cause allergies, skin rashes, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, and Quincke edema.

Antipyretic drugs for poisoning

When poisoning often increases body temperature. Thus, the body tries to quickly get rid of the toxins that have got into it. High temperature helps to speed up the metabolism, improve blood circulation and microcirculation of the blood in the organs, accelerate the elimination of toxins.

If during poisoning the body temperature does not rise above 38 degrees, then experts do not recommend that it be knocked down. When it begins to increase, a variety of antipyretic agents will come to the rescue. But it is very important to correctly calculate their dose, since it is not worth to load the liver at the time when the body tries to remove toxins.

Release form

Antipyretics are available in a variety of forms of release. The most common among adults are various powders for the preparation of suspensions, as well as tablets. In some cases, if the general condition is severe, injections can be used.

For the treatment of children most commonly used: syrup, suppositories, tablets.

Antipyretic drugs in injections

Of course, the most famous forms of antipyretic agents are powders and tablets. But there are cases when such drugs can not cope with a huge number of a wide variety of bacteria. Then the injection method of drug administration comes to the rescue.

Let's look at some of them.

Trojchatka. Injection of this drug helps not only cope with fever, but also significantly improve the patient's condition. As the name implies, there are three special components in this injection. All of them effectively perform their work, strengthening each other's actions.

Typically, such an injection consists of analgin, papaverine and no-shpy (diphenhydramine). Usually an injection is made into the muscle. The trojatka can consist of other active components, depending on how the disease proceeds and how the person feels. So, for example, dimedrol can be changed for suprastin, and analgin - for any other anesthetic drug.

Remember that Troychatka is used only with cases of severe illness. It helps to reduce heat, reduce allergies, and relieve pain.

Before applying the triad, all ampoules need to be heated a little in the hands, dial into the syringe analgin, papaverine and at the very end of diphenhydramine. The drug should be administered slowly.

Analgin. Analgin in the form of injection is used quite rarely, since most people prefer all the same its tablet form. Analgin is injected into the muscle slowly enough. This drug helps quickly get rid of the heat.

The maximum daily dose of analgin in the form of injection does not exceed 2 g of the drug. In this case, such shots are prohibited in some cases: if the patient does not tolerate this component, during pregnancy and during lactation, with poor blood formation.

Names of antipyretic drugs

Today in pharmacies you can find a huge number of a variety of antipyretic drugs that can be used for various diseases. The most popular among them are the following:

  1. Paracetamol.
  2. Grippostad.
  3. Analgin.
  4. Ibuprofen.
  5. Nurofen.
  6. Aspirin.
  7. Dicrofenac.
  8. Indomethacin.
  9. Teraflu.
  10. Butadione.
  11. Nimesil.
  12. Metindol.
  13. Nyz.

Paracetamol

Paracetamol is used by mankind to lower temperatures for more than a hundred years. It is one of the most famous and safe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This substance has a low anti-inflammatory activity, since it almost does not function at COX. It is due to this fact that paracetamol has almost no side effects, does not irritate the stomach and does not violate the water-mineral metabolism.

In this case, on COX, produced in the brain, paracetamol acts quite strongly. Therefore, the drug is antipyretic, analgesic. It is quickly absorbed from the stomach, so it begins to act only half an hour after ingestion.

It should be noted that paracetamol is used to reduce temperature mainly in viral infections. If you notice that the body temperature does not subside after taking this remedy, you should immediately seek help from the local therapist.

Paracetamol today can be found in many tablets and powders for the preparation of a suspension. The most popular means with this active component are:

  1. Adol.
  2. Grippostad.
  3. Dainaphede.
  4. Daleron.
  5. Tylenol (including the children's form).
  6. Medicpirin.
  7. Napa.
  8. Lecadol.
  9. Panadol.
  10. Paramol.
  11. Febricet.

Classification of antipyretic drugs

All antipyretics can be divided into two large groups:

  1. Analgesics-antipyretics - differ anesthetizing and antipyretic effect. Such drugs can be used only if the body temperature has risen to 39 degrees, and also if other drugs do not give a positive result. Analgesics-antipyretics in many countries of the world are currently prohibited, because they can cause agranulocytosis. The most common drugs in this group are: Baralgin, Analgin Ultra, Propifenazole, Paracetamol, Sedalgin.
  2. Anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs - these drugs inhibit cyclooxygenase, which takes part in the production of bradykinins, prostaglandins. Such agents also help to reduce the sensitivity to the action of the above substances. The most famous drugs in this group are: Ibuprofen, Acetylsalicylic acid, Meloxicam, Nimesulide. Doctors recommend taking these drugs with caution in case of bronchial asthma and stomach diseases.

Antiviral antipyretic drugs

Doctors recommend taking with viral diseases to relieve the heat Paracetamol and other medications with this active ingredient. Here it is worthwhile to pay attention to the fact that you need to use these funds only with a significant increase in temperature. It is not recommended to take the tablets as described in the instructions (four times a day) if the temperature remains normal.

Aspirin for the treatment of viral infections is contraindicated, especially when decreasing temperature in children. This can lead to severe disruption of the central nervous system, liver, kidneys. Aspirin is also prohibited in cases of stomach disease.

Antipyretic anti-inflammatory drugs

The composition of antipyretic anti-inflammatory drugs usually includes the following active components: diclofenac-sodium, acetylsalicylic acid, metamizole, paracetamol, phenylbutazone, indomecin, ibuprofen, piroxicam, naproxen.

The main advantages of this group of medicines is the fact that they do not affect the heat production in the human body in any way. They expand the capillaries in the skin, which increases sweating and sharply increase the heat transfer.

All these funds can be conditionally divided into several separate groups:

  1. Medicines with analgesic effect, but poorly expressed anti-inflammatory effect. This includes: Analgin, Paracetamol, Baralgin, and phenacetin.
  2. Medications with a moderate anti-inflammatory effect: Brufen, Acetylsalicylic acid, Surgam.
  3. Drugs with a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect: Piroxicam, Indomethacin.

Antipyretics and pain medication

The most common drugs that not only reduce body temperature with various infectious diseases, but also reduce pain, are the following.

Amidopyrine. Drug based on the active component of amidopyrine. Has analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effect.

Drink these tablets are recommended three to four times in 24 hours in a dosage of not more than 0.3 g of the drug at a time. For children, the dose should be reduced to 0.15 g per dose. Taking this medication can cause the development of allergies, oppression of hematopoiesis.

Panadol. Drug based on the active ingredient paracetamol. It differs with antipyretic and analgesic effect.

The recommended single dose for adult patients is two Panadol tablets. You can drink up to four times in 24 hours. Please note that you can drink only four doses per day. For children, a single dose is one to two tablets. A suspension or syrup can be used to treat infants.

Taking Panadol can cause skin rashes, allergies, pain in the abdomen.

Eferalgan. The drug is based on paracetamol. Produced in the form of a solution and effervescent tablets. It differs in analgesic and antipyretic action.

When using effervescent tablets, one of them must be dissolved in one glass of water. Reception is possible up to three times in 24 hours. A solution can be used for small children.

If a patient has been diagnosed with acute or chronic liver and kidney pathologies, it is prohibited to take tablets. Reception can cause various allergic reactions.

Antipyretic drugs for children

First of all, when choosing medicines for children that reduce body temperature, it is necessary to pay attention to their form of release. Here everything depends on the child's age. For young patients, the most suitable drugs are in the form of:

  1. Syrup or liquid medicine - start to act quickly enough, a convenient way of taking.
  2. Suppositories - are sufficiently effective and begin to act quickly (from forty minutes after administration). This form is suitable in the event that the child has vomiting, and he can not drink a pill or syrup.
  3. Chewable tablets - it should be noted that they are not suitable for everyone, since they often cause allergies.

Remember that any febrifuge can be given only after consultation of the pediatrician. It is also necessary to select the correct dosage according to the instructions. Repeated use of such medications can only be four hours after the previous intake.

In modern pediatrics, the following antipyretic drugs are used:

  1. Ibuprofen (Nurofen, Ibufen).
  2. Paracetamol (Panadol, Tylenol, Eferalgan).
  3. Viburkol (homeopathic preparation).

Pharmacodynamics

Consider the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of antipyretic drugs using the example of the drug "Panadol".

It is an analgesic-antipyretic, which differs antipyretic effect. Due to the blocking of COX only in the central nervous system, Panadol influences thermoregulation processes and centers of pain.

Pharmacokinetics

Due to the high absorption of paracetamol, which is part of Panadol, the maximum concentration of the drug is reached after 2 hours. It should be noted that 1% of paracetamol penetrates into breast milk. Metabolism means occurs in the liver (up to 95%). It is excreted by the kidneys.

Use of the antipyretics during pregnancy

In pregnant women, immunity is greatly reduced, so they are more likely to get sick for colds and infectious diseases, which are accompanied by an increase in temperature. First of all, it is worth remembering that Aspirin is completely contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation, as this drug blocks prostaglandin, and this causes bleeding, which can be dangerous for the health of the future mother and baby.

In the first and second trimester, Ibuprofen and Paracetamol can be taken to lower fever, but only after the recommendation of the attending physician. But starting from the third trimester, Ibuprofen is strictly prohibited.

Contraindications

  1. Intolerance of active components of the drug.
  2. Admission together with other antipyretic drugs.
  3. Pregnancy and breast-feeding (in some cases).
  4. Children's age (in some cases).

Side effects of the antipyretics

  1. Various allergic reactions (including skin rash).
  2. Edema of the Quincke.
  3. Nausea.
  4. Diarrhea.
  5. Anemia.
  6. Agranulocytosis.
  7. Leukopenia.
  8. Thrombocytopenia.
  9. Colpitis.
  10. Allergic rhinitis.

Storage conditions

It is very important to store antipyretic medicines in a place that is inaccessible to young children. The air temperature should not exceed +25 degrees.

Shelf life

Shelf life of such medical devices is up to five years.

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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To simplify the perception of information, this instruction for use of the drug "Antipyretic drugs" translated and presented in a special form on the basis of the official instructions for medical use of the drug. Before use read the annotation that came directly to medicines.

Description provided for informational purposes and is not a guide to self-healing. The need for this drug, the purpose of the treatment regimen, methods and dose of the drug is determined solely by the attending physician. Self-medication is dangerous for your health.

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