Diagnosis - inflammation of the bladder is based on a number of clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies. Diagnosis of acute cystitis begins with the collection of anamnesis. The doctor asks the patient about the possible causes of the disorder and the nature of the painful symptoms. Also palpation of the suprapubic region is carried out, since sharp pains appear in the inflammation.
At the next stage the urologist gives direction to the tests. It is necessary to pass a general analysis of urine and its bacteriological culture. In the general analysis, an increased number of leukocytes, uric acid, protein, mucus, erythrocytes. If the disease is of a bacterial nature, then the pathogenic flora is identified. Also, a general blood test is needed to show whether the inflammatory process of the kidney has affected.
Diagnosis involves cystoscopy. During this study, the bladder is filled with a special fluid and injected into the organ of the cystoscope to assess its condition from the inside. For women, a visit to the gynecologist, bacteriological, microscopic and PCR studies of gynecological smears is mandatory. If necessary, ultrasound of the bladder, kidneys and other organs of the genitourinary system can be prescribed.
Timely diagnosis of cystitis can prevent the upward spread of infection, the development of complications and kidney damage. Analyzes refer to laboratory diagnostics, which are carried out to diagnose and control the effectiveness of treatment.
The laboratory minimum for inflammation of the bladder includes such studies:
- Blood test.
- General analysis of urine and Nechiporenko.
- RDP Urin.
- Determination of the type of pathogenic microflora and its sensitivity to antibacterial drugs.
- Smears from the vagina to determine the microflora and sexual infections.
- Clinical analysis of blood - if the disease occurs in an uncomplicated form, then no pathological changes are detected. In more severe cases, there are clear signs of inflammation: leukocytosis, neutrophilia, increased ESR, shift of the leukocyte formula to the left.
- General analysis of urine - this study is aimed at determining the change in the properties of urine. The laboratory assesses the state of such fluid parameters: color, odor, transparency, specific density, leukocytes, erythrocytes, cylinders, epithelial cells, salts, fungi and bacteria.
- Nechiporenko analysis - is performed with pathological indicators of the general analysis of urine and with suspected hidden forms of inflammation. This technique with a high accuracy determines the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes and cylinders in 1 ml of urine. For the analysis, use an average portion of urine.
- Polymerase chain reaction - PCR reveals the genetic material of pathogens. Allows to conduct qualitative and quantitative research with high specificity. For research take scrapings from the vagina, cervix and urethra.
- Bacterial sowing - reveals the causes of inflammation of the bladder. Urine is sown on nutrient media. After 10 days, colonies of bacteria, fungi are obtained, which are tested for sensitivity to antibiotics for the selection of effective drugs.
In order for the analysis to be as reliable as possible, it is necessary to prepare for its delivery. First of all, hygiene of the external genital organs with a soap solution is carried out. Urine should be collected in the morning after sleep in a sterile container. The biomaterial is delivered to the laboratory within 1-2 hours after the fence.
Urine in acute cystitis
Inflammation of the bladder proceeds with a pronounced painful symptomatology, which is difficult to confuse with other diseases. But for the effective treatment of cystitis, correct diagnosis is very important. Based on its results, drugs and other therapies are selected. One of the most informative is urinalysis.
Let's consider the basic indicators of the general analysis of urine at an acute cystitis:
- Color - due to inflammation of the urinary mucosa, a small amount of blood gets into the urine, which stains it. The color of healthy urine varies from light yellow to that of straw.
- Transparency - a healthy person has a clear urine. Due to the action of pathogenic microorganisms, urine becomes turbid. It receives particles of the epithelium and cells due to an inflammatory reaction.
- Acidity - with urinary cystitis urine is more alkaline, which affects the products of the life of bacteria and increases the level of secreted protein.
- Leukocytes - Normally, urine contains a small amount of white blood cells that enter the kidneys with blood flow. In women, the number of leukocytes is higher than that of men. Elevated indices indicate inflammation in the bladder. If urine contains pus, this indicates the development of pyuria.
- Erythrocytes - with cystitis in the fluid there are blood clots. If more than two red cells are detected during the analysis, this indicates an acute form of inflammation.
- Protein - if its amount is higher than 1 g per 1 liter of urine, it speaks not only of inflammation of the bladder, but also of kidney damage.
- The flat epithelium - the urethra and the ureter are lined with an epithelium, which flakes off during the inflammation and goes out with the urine.
- Bacterial indicators - their presence indicates a cystitis, as in the norm urine does not contain bacteria.
- Slime - arises due to the fact that during inflammation the epithelial cells are rejected, which should not normally be present.
In addition to the general analysis, the patients undergo a Nechiporenko study. The analyzes are shown not only during the diagnosis, but also during treatment to determine the effectiveness of the prescribed therapy.
Another step in diagnosing inflammation of the bladder is instrumental research. To confirm the diagnosis, the following procedures are carried out:
- Ultrasound - ultrasound examination of the bladder gives a visual image of the shape and size of the organ. It allows to reveal structural changes of mucous membranes, which can cause serious complications. If necessary, a comprehensive ultrasound of the entire genitourinary system and kidneys is performed.
- Cystoscopy - allows you to diagnose bladder damage in the early stages. The body is filled with liquid and an optical device is inserted. If cystitis occurs in an acute form, then cystoscopy is contraindicated because of high traumatism and the risk of further spread of the infection.
- Cystography is an x-ray examination that allows you to carefully study the structure of the inflamed organ and excretory system. During the study, concrements, tumor neoplasms, anomalies in the structure of the organ can be detected.
The results of instrumental examinations are compared with laboratory analyzes and put the final diagnosis. Diagnosis carried out allows you to choose the most effective method of treatment.