There are many types of nevi (white, red, transparent, flat, convex, etc.), the appearance of which can cause anxiety. Their symptoms are not accompanied by painful sensations or other signs indicating that the birthmark has grown. Only regular self-examination of the skin, will allow to notice a new pigmented growth. Problems arise when the birthmark is injured or sharply enlarged. In this case, you need to contact a dermatologist who classifies the damage, determines its appearance, and conducts the diagnosis.
Consider the symptoms and external signs of common moles:
- Not dangerous (without the risk of degeneration in melanoma)
- Flat - Lentigo is formed from melanocytes in the upper layers of the skin. Have a round or oval shape, 3-5 cm in size, can be both smooth and relief, the color is darker than freckles. They are not affected by ultraviolet radiation, they do not darken and do not increase in size. Most often appear on the face, arms and neck.
- Convex - are formed from melanocytes in deep layers of the skin. Very often it has hair, in diameter it is about 1 cm with a smooth or bumpy surface.
- Papillomatous - most often localized in the scalp, have a rough surface with irregularities, warts and grooves.
- Galoneuvus - a depigmented ring is formed around the pigment, and its center is pinned above the surrounding tissues.
- Mongolian spot - can reach large sizes and be localized on any part of the body. Its color varies from intense in children, to pale in adults.
- Fibroepithelial - an outgrowth of round shape with even edges, pink or light brown in color.
- Hemangioma - a vascular birthmark, red or pink. It is formed in the form of nodules, that is hanging nevi.
The above-described pigment neoplasms do not cause any particular harm, they do not change color with age and do not grow.
- Dangerous nevi (there is a risk of malignancy)
- Blue - has a blue or blue color, and in some cases brown. Small size up to 2 cm, rises above the surface of the skin. Most often localized on the face, extremities and buttocks.
- Border pigmentary - can be of different shapes and colors. A distinctive feature is the concentric change of color to the center from the periphery.
- Giant pigment - has large dimensions and uneven edges, rises above surrounding tissues. Often, such formations have increased hair growth.
- Dysplastic - irregular in shape with uneven edges and heterogeneous color.
- Nevus Ota - localized in the area of the orbit, cheekbones or upper jaw. May appear on the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or eyes.
All of the skin defects described above have features that distinguish them from each other and other skin formations. If you make a diagnosis after a visual inspection is difficult, then the doctor performs skin scraping or histology.
The remote birthmark has grown
Recurrence of melanocytic nevus after removal is a continued growth of tissues that have not been completely removed. If the remote birthmark has grown and by histology it is benign, then the relapse does not carry danger. But if there is a rapid growth of the pigment and its outflow from the rumen, then it is necessary to carry out a reexcision followed by a repeated histology.
The consequences of removal of nevi, that is, the risk of their further growth depends on a number of factors. It is very important to take into account the individual reactions of the body, the correctness of postoperative care and, of course, the quality of the removal procedure performed. Immediately after the operation, there is discomfort, which can last from a few days to a month. A crust appears on the excision site, which can not be touched. To prevent possible infection, the wound should be greased with a solution of potassium permanganate or zelenok.
Birthmark grew after removal
Many owners of pigmented growths on the skin face such a problem when the mole grew after removal. This is due to an incorrect procedure, that is, the incomplete removal of melanocytic cells.
Let's consider in detail, with what complications besides recurrence, it is possible to collide at use of various methods of removal:
- Laser removal - all the complications are minimized, the whole healing process goes without consequences. If there was treatment of a small flat mole, then after complete recovery, there is not even a scar left on the skin. After the convex, there may be small depressions in the areas of their removal and scars. In rare cases, a change in skin pigmentation is observed.
- Cryodestruction is one of the cheapest and most affordable methods. After it very often there are various complications. Since using liquid nitrogen it is impossible to determine the depth of pigment tissues, that is, the risk of their partial removal, after which a repeated procedure will be required. Careless use of liquid nitrogen can cause a burn of tissues, which lengthens the healing time and breaks the structure of healthy skin. Another disadvantage of this method is that at the site of an incompletely removed birthmark a small compaction-tubercle is formed, which requires additional treatment.
- Radio-knife - in its effectiveness is similar to the laser procedure. Can leave small scars, but does not apply to remove formations on the face.
- Surgical excision - after a local anesthetic build-up is excised with a scalpel and a suture is applied. After the procedure, the healing process follows, which takes longer, unlike other methods. There are a number of consequences that the patient should be familiar with: subcutaneous hemorrhages, scars, keloid scars, infection of the wound and, of course, recurrence.
- Self-removal is the most dangerous method with the greatest number of dangerous consequences. When using it, it is necessary to understand that not all nevi are amenable to disposal, since there are those that can not be touched. At home, it is very difficult to comply with all standards of hygiene, so the risk of infection of the wound is significantly increased. Without special microscopic diagnosis, it is difficult to say how deeply melanocytic cells penetrated, so after self-treatment in 90% of cases there is a relapse. And another frequent phenomenon is scars.
Whether the birthmark will grow after removal again depends on the chosen method of its treatment, the professionalism of the surgeon and the observance of the recommendations on wound care.
A birthmark has grown hair
For many people, it becomes an unpleasant fact that when a birthmark grew hair. This gives aesthetic discomfort and can cause psychological complexes. But if the nevus, covered with hair is not in a prominent place and does not cause discomfort, then the question remains: is hair growth dangerous and can they be removed.
Hairizing is a normal physiological process. It indicates that the pigmented neoplasm consists of healthy, mature melanocytes. It is benign and does not carry a threat. Some mistakenly believe that the hair on the birthmark is a sign of melanoma, but it is not. On the contrary, the risk of transformation of the build-up with the hair is much less than without it. That is, if your hair grows on your moles, then this is not an excuse for excitement. But if they spoil the look, they can be deleted.
Two methods are used for deletion:
- Periodic cropping with scissors.
That is, you can only remove hair by cutting it with scissors. The instrument must be disinfected beforehand with hydrogen peroxide or alcohol. In order to get rid of the problem forever, you have to contact a dermatologist who will choose the optimal method of removing the build-up. If the hair is not the cause of discomfort or aesthetic discomfort, then it is better not to touch them. In this case, do not forget that the hairline - this is a clear sign of good quality.
Hairs are contraindicated to pull out with tweezers. Since there is a risk of traumatization of the hair follicle, its irritation and subsequent inflammation. Do not shave the hairs, as damage to tissues, can cause malignant degeneration. But if the hair still pulled, it is better to consult a dermatologist, especially if after the procedure there was pain, itching and burning. With the help of dermatoscopy and visual inspection, the doctor will prescribe the treatment or removal of the tumor. If there is a situation when the hair itself falls out, then this is not a very good symptom, as it increases the risk of degeneration into cancer. In this case, you should also consult a dermatologist.
Birthmark has grown over the year
Pigmented skin lesions are present in many people, for some they serve as adornments, while in others they cause discomfort and disgust. Even if a person was born without these special marks, then during a lifetime they will necessarily appear. If the mole has grown in a year, but it has normal dimensions and does not cause painful sensations, then there is no cause for concern. The growth process is especially active in the first ten years of a person's life, during puberty and during pregnancy.
The first spots with melanin cells appear at one-year-old age, they are few and barely noticeable. The reason for their growth is associated with the active production of hormones or prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. That is, the birthmark can be a congenital malformation of the skin or acquired benign neoplasm. They differ in size, color, location and depth of occurrence in the layers of the skin. So, if the birthmark is safe, then it has a round or oval shape, a small <5 mm, and its color does not change.
The cause for concern should be the appearance of a large number of nevi in a short time. In this case it is better to contact a dermatologist who will check the malignancy and determine their type. If there is a risk of oncology, then the threat must be eliminated at an early stage. Since without medical help even a small, at first glance, inconspicuous birthmark can develop into melanoma, spreading cancer cells throughout the body.
Mole darkened and grew
Many people face a problem when the birthmark has darkened and grown. This may be due to exposure to UV radiation, hormonal failure or trauma. In this case, the neoplasm does not always take a malignant form. But if the outgrowth has darkened and grown in a short period of time, then it is worthwhile to be alert. Such abrupt changes in some cases lead to serious consequences.
Malignant tumor is a melanoma, it quickly spreads through the body through the circulatory system. There are a number of symptoms that indicate a pathological process:
- Pigment blackened
- There were dark inclusions
- The contours have changed
- The color became heterogeneous
- Increased size
In this case, it is very important to exclude the risk of oncology. To do this, you need to contact a dermatologist who will carry out the diagnosis of altered tissues. After a number of studies, the problem of removing the build-up will be the case, since the suspicion of malignancy is a direct indication of this procedure.
What to do if the mole has grown during pregnancy
After conception of the child in the female body, serious changes occur. Many future mothers complain that the birthmark grew during pregnancy. Their appearance in this period is quite normal and explainable phenomenon. In most cases, they are benign in nature and do not cause complications. In addition to the appearance of new ones, during this period, existing ones may grow or become darker. All these processes are associated with increased production of melanin (skin pigment hormone). Just like the color of the navel changes, the area near the nipples or the strip on the abdomen, so do moles.
If the new spot does not cause painful sensations, that is, it does not itch and does not become inflamed, then everything is normal. This applies to already existing ones, which have darkened or increased in size. But if there is at least one of the above symptoms, then you need to see a doctor. Do not forget that the risk of malignancy is, despite the fact that it is minimal.
Regarding any changes that occur with nevi, a pregnant woman should consult her gynecologist. A female doctor will give a referral to a dermatologist who will diagnose disturbing neoplasms and decide what to do with them further. It is not recommended to remove birthmarks during gestation, but it is not forbidden. You can get rid of those growths that are regularly traumatized, that is, they are in a group of high risk for rebirth. Mandatory removal of skin defects in the perineum and birth canals, as they can be damaged and even infected during the birth process. If a pregnant woman has a malignant nevus, that is, it is also removed.
What if the baby has a mole?
The appearance of moles in children, this is a common phenomenon, which in most cases does not cause concern. In search of an answer to the question of why a child has a mole, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist. The doctor will perform the diagnosis, determine the type of skin formation and the cause of its appearance (heredity, accumulation of melanocytes, unfavorable environmental factors).
Nevi can appear immediately after birth, in which case they are classified as congenital. They come in different colors, sizes and locations. As a rule, there are 3-10 of them. As they grow older, they increase and darken, some disappear, others appear.
- Most often, children are diagnosed with pigmented growths on the head, nose and the back of the head. They are congenital in nature, as they are formed during the period of intrauterine development.
- The second most frequent occurrence is flat birthmarks. With age, they increase, but do not change their color.
- Very rarely there are hemangiomas - convex neoplasms of different colors. In most cases, they grow on the face, delivering aesthetic discomfort.
Many parents raise the issue of removing such formations. This can be associated with the risk of their degeneration into malignant tumors and with the fact that they spoil the appearance of the child. For removal, the same methods are used as for adult patients: laser surgery, cryodestruction or electrocoagulation. The final decision and the permission for removal is given by the dermatologist, being guided by results of analyzes.