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Health

Surgical removal of a birthmark

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020
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There are many methods of removing the birthmark, the most common is surgical. Consider the features of the procedure, the evidence for its conduct and possible consequences.

The mole is a skin lesion. Its color (from light brown to black) depends on the amount of melanocytes. Nevus are hereditary in nature and can appear throughout life. If pigment cells are in deep layers of the skin, then convex birthmarks are formed, if melanocytes are on the surface, then flat ones.

It is necessary to follow these skin growths. If they have a large size or unusual shape, then it is worth contacting a dermatologist. Nevuses up to 5 mm with smooth contours and uniform color do not pose a danger and, as a rule, do not require removal. But their main danger is that they can degenerate into malignant formations - melanoma. Such formations are subject to urgent removal - excision.

Surgical removal of a birthmark is the most common and relatively cheap method of treatment. It is suitable for the destruction of large and deep cutaneous formations, but has a number of characteristics.

Benefits:

  • High efficiency - allows you to remove the mole in one procedure.
  • The minimum of contraindications and the low cost of the operation make it available to many patients.
  • Low risk of recurrence - since the nevus is removed completely, no repeated procedure is required.
  • Safety - the procedure is carried out in a hospital environment under the strict supervision of a physician.

Disadvantages:

  • Prolong wound healing and recovery - after surgery for a long time will have to give up sunbathing and solarium.
  • Scars - the more the wound surface, the higher the risk of scarring. In particularly severe cases, the development of keloid scars is possible.

The operation may be necessary if the mole is more than 5 mm, has a non-uniform color, uneven edges and irregular shape. Under the scalpel, nevi, which are constantly injured, cause discomfort or cosmetic discomforts. If they are available, you need to contact a dermatologist who will determine the type of cutaneous growth and the method of removing it.

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Indications

Any operation, regardless of complexity, has its own testimony. Excision is most often performed with suspicions of malignant degeneration. Surgical removal of a birthmark is necessary if it:

  • Increased in size.
  • Has a deep penetration into the skin.
  • I broke up into several lobules.
  • Began to bleed.
  • Delivers pain and is often traumatized.
  • It causes aesthetic discomfort.

Despite the acceptable cost, excision is quite traumatic and can leave scars. But this method has its advantages over more modern technologies: laser removal and cryodestruction. After surgery, the obtained materials can be examined for histology.

Excision prevents recurrence of the cutaneous growth, as the areas of healthy tissue are captured. The procedure should be carried out only in specialized medical institutions, and not in beauty salons.

Preparation

Regardless of the medical indications, preparation is performed before the operation. First of all, the doctor explains the essence of the procedure, its possible complications and nuances of the recovery period. After that, the patient takes a place on the couch. The new formation and the skin around it are treated with a disinfecting solution.

Mandatory anesthesia is carried out, so that during excision there is no discomfort. Most often these are drugs with lidocaine (Anestacon, Xylocaine, Bactin, Zalaktin-L). It does not take much time, but it reduces the flow of blood to the operated site. If there is a risk of bleeding, then Epinifreen is added to the local anesthetic.

After this, with a scalpel, the mole and part of the healthy tissues are excised. The resulting wound is treated with a special solution and stitches are applied. The tissues obtained during the operation are sent for histological examination. At the end of the whole doctor gives advice on skin care.

Technique for removing a birthmark surgically

Getting rid of nevi on the face and body is not only a cosmetic procedure, but also an effective method of preventing oncology. To surgical removal resorted to in case of struggle with deep and extensive outgrowths or moles, which have several segments. This is the only effective way to eliminate large neoplasms.

The technique of removing a birthmark surgically depends on its location and size. The procedure is performed under local anesthetic, and it takes 40-60 minutes.

  • Cutting method without suturing - with a scalpel, the built-up edge is cut slightly below the skin level. If there was bleeding, then to stop the wound cauterize and apply antibiotic local action. Apply a bandage and give advice on further skin care.
  • Suture removal - used to treat flat or dark moles. The doctor cleans the skin of the neoplasm and anesthetizes the operating surface. Scalpel excludes not only a mole, but also surrounding tissues. Focusing on the depth of the operation, overlap the upper or deep layers of the skin. To do this, use self-absorbing materials that do not require removal.

The healing speed, as a rule, takes 1-2 weeks. During this period it is necessary to protect the operated site from any external influence.

Contraindications

Surgical removal of a birthmark is a cosmetic procedure, the advantage of which is the absence of absolute contraindications. This is due to the fact that the operation is carried out on a separate part of the body. But there are a number of relative contraindications, consider them:

  • The presence of infectious diseases.
  • Acute inflammatory processes.
  • Exacerbation of chronic diseases.
  • Pregnancy and lactation.
  • Exacerbation of herpes.

In the presence of chronic diseases and after their arresting, additional analyzes are mandatory. This avoids complications and speeds up the recovery process.

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Effects

Any operation can cause serious consequences. When the scalpel acts on the nevus and sutures, such pathologies are possible:

  • Scarification - during surgery not only the nevus is removed, but healthy tissues are also affected. Proceeding from this, the size of the scar depends on the size of the cutaneous growth and the professionalism of the surgeon. Over time, the scars lighten, which makes them less visible.
  • Keloid scars - most often occur in patients who have a tendency to their formation. Appear after suturing large wounds.
  • Recurrence - a repeated skin defect is possible in the event that the doctor has not completely removed the mole. Rebirth is not ruled out with melanoma-dangerous formations.

The probability of the above-described consequences is significantly reduced in the treatment of moles by safer methods.

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Complications

Surgical methods for the removal of moles, in contrast to the alternative, have a high risk of complications. Typically, it is a painful feeling in the place of surgery, the appearance of scars and scars. The procedure is not recommended for use on the face and other sensitive areas of the skin.

Most often after the operation, scars remain. This complication is inevitable, since cosmetic sutures are applied to the skin. Surgery is used in the event that the birthmark is on an inconspicuous part of the body and the scar can be hidden.

Another complication is subcutaneous hemorrhage. A slight reddening around the removed tissues, takes 7-10 days. Because after excision the wound remains open, that is, the probability of infection. All patients are warned about this, and this factor is the reason for choosing less traumatic methods.

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Rehabilitation period

After the removal of the mole, as well as after any surgical operation, the patient awaits a rehabilitation period. This implies special care for the wound surface. At the site of the nevus, a wound is formed, its dimensions depend on the diameter of the removed material. Gradually, it is tightened by a crust, which disappears after 1-2 weeks. On the wound site, a young pink skin appears and needs proper maintenance.

Features of skin care:

  • Do not wet the wound for 4-5 days, but keep hygiene around the area undergoing surgery.
  • Do not touch or tear off the crust that covers the wound, because underneath it the healing process takes place, breaking which can provoke a large scar.
  • As soon as the crust falls off and pink skin appears under it, cover it from the sun.

About a month later, on the spot where the mole was, the skin assumes normal pigmentation. Within a month or two, painful sensations may still occur. The final healing depends on the individual characteristics of the body, but on average it takes 2-6 months.

Care for the scar

Healing of the skin after getting rid of the birthmark takes 2-4 weeks. During this period, it is necessary to treat the wound, and in the future care will be needed for the scar. After the operation, the patient may be prescribed wound-healing drugs with antibiotics and obligatory skin treatment with green or manganese. If the operation is successful and the medical recommendations are fully implemented, then undesirable consequences, that is, complications in the form of infection and bruising do not arise.

Within 5-10 days on the skin appears a crust, which gives way to a young pink skin. Such areas should be protected from the impact of negative factors, and especially from the sun. If you can not hide a wound, then before going out, use sunscreens with a high level of protection. If you leave the skin without protection, then it may appear pigmented spots.

Surgical removal of a birthmark very often leaves behind scars and scarring. In most cases, they resolve themselves, but if this does not happen, then the skin needs help. To do this, natural cocoa butter or silicone adhesive (suitable only for medical purposes). If this does not give the expected result, then it is worthwhile to contact a cosmetic surgeon. After treatment, carefully examine your birthmarks, especially if the removal was due to permanent trauma to the nevus. Take care not to make any changes.

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Hospital after surgical removal of a birthmark

Getting rid of nevi involves surgery and a long recovery period. Hospital after surgical removal of the birthmark depends on the location of its location and the size, volume of work done. As a rule, patients are discharged from work for 1-2 weeks.

If the mole was large and stitches were applied, the patient should go to the wound dressings, and after healing and to remove the sutures. The tissues obtained during the operation are sent for histology. Therefore, during the period of the hospital, the doctor acquaints himself with the results of this study. If there is data on the degeneration of cutaneous formation, the patient is registered to monitor the dynamics in moles and their treatment.

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