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Health

Removing moles: an overview of the main methods

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 26.06.2018
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Very often birthmarks on the body cause discomfort, for example, when wearing clothes or jewelry. Yes, and aesthetically, such formations are not always appropriate. A few decades ago, removal of moles was carried out only by a surgical method - using a scalpel. In our time, remove unwanted nevus in many different ways, after consulting with the doctor.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]

Is it dangerous to remove a birthmark?

In many cases, the mere existence of a mole may be more dangerous than its removal. Despite the fact that birthmarks are benign formations, under certain conditions they can be transformed into melanoma, a cancer tumor.

However, this does not mean that it is necessary to remove absolutely all the nevi on the body. It is desirable to get rid of only potentially dangerous formations:

  • permanently injured by clothing or accessories;
  • periodically disturbing for other reasons.

Do not worry that the operation will be the impetus for the appearance of new birthmarks - this is not so. Moreover, some spots can be so unfavorable that it is necessary to remove them.

Dangerous can be getting rid of moles on their own at home, using alternative methods, as well as using the services of a non-specialist - a person who does not have the appropriate education and skills.

What indications are considered sufficient to remove a birthmark?

  • Noticeable growth of the birthmark in a relatively short term.
  • Change in the color of the spot (both lightening and darkening).
  • Development of the inflammatory process (redness, swelling).
  • The appearance of blood, sores and other elements on the surface of the birthmark.
  • Asymmetry of a spot.
  • Appearance of peeling, crusts, blisters.
  • Change in the consistency of the nevus (hardening, softening).
  • The size of the birthmark is too large.
  • The location in places of friction clothing or other traumatic places.

Any of these symptoms is considered a direct indication for the mandatory elimination of tumors.

Is special preparation required for the removal procedure?

If the birthmark is removed for aesthetic reasons, special training may not be required. The doctor will examine the formation, assess its condition, depth, and then choose the most optimal method of removal.

If removal of a nevi is carried out on suspicion of a malignant formation, the preparation may include the surrender of certain analyzes and the conduct of research.

What tests should I take to remove my birthmark? It depends on the individual patient. In most cases, you may need the following diagnostic types:

  • general blood analysis;
  • coagulogram (investigation of the blood coagulation system);
  • a blood test for oncomarkers.

If necessary, if local anesthesia is planned, a drug reaction test can be conducted to avoid allergy to anesthetics. Most often, doctors use lidocaine-based drugs for this.

Which doctor removes moles?

Removal of moles can be performed by a general surgeon in any hospital or clinic, as well as narrow specialists:

It is much safer to conduct a procedure in medical institutions, where there is all the necessary equipment that supports most of the most common methods of getting rid of moles. In such medical centers, the doctor will be able to carry out the necessary diagnostics and select the most suitable type of treatment for a particular patient.

To remove tumors in dubious salons, to trust their health to incompetent persons without appropriate education and experience is strongly discouraged - this can be dangerous.

Methods of removing a birthmark: which one to choose?

There are a lot of ways to remove a mole. Each of these methods has its own testimony, positive and negative sides. You can get rid of the birthmark with a scalpel, a laser or an "electron knife". Usually the choice of the method is carried out together with the doctor, who will conduct the procedure.

  • Removal of moles by laser is a quick and effective way to get rid of unwanted formations on the skin. For this one session is enough. At the same time, healthy skin is not affected, so there is no scarring after removal, and the risk of bleeding is reduced to zero. A few months after the laser procedure from her remains only a small spot.
  • Removal of moles by nitrogen (the method of cryodestruction) is not a very popular method, which sometimes does not allow removing the tumor in one procedure, since it is not possible to accurately determine the depth of tissue damage with nitrogen. In addition, sometimes after the removal procedure there remains a thermal burn, after which a trace of scar tissue may remain. Removal of moles by cryodestruction is characterized by a long period of skin repair, but the low price of this method is often the main criterion for patient selection.
  • Surgical removal of the birthmark is the only method that allows to get rid of the deep and large formations on the skin. Most often, removal of the moles with a scalpel is carried out on the skin areas hidden under the clothes, since after the operation a scar usually remains. The size of the scar depends on the original size of the birthmark and on the degree of seizure by the surgeon of the nearest healthy tissues. The huge advantages of this method are relatively low cost, guaranteed quality of disposal, and the ability to send the received tissue elements to a histological study.
  • Radio wave removal of moles is also called radiosurgical method - it is a contactless procedure for tissue treatment and removal of moles with a radio-wave, that is, removal using radio waves. The radio knife is a special electrode, at the end of which energy is generated, which heats and evaporates tissues. Radio wave removal of moles is considered a gentle method, which does not leave behind scars and scars, and healing takes place quickly and without complications.
  • Removing a mole by electrocoagulation is the thermal effect on the desired area of the skin using a high frequency current. The essence of the method is in the flow of current and heating of a special platinum loop up to 200 ° C. With this loop, the doctor conducts the procedure using "cutting" and "coagulating" waves. Removal of moles by current allows you to "cut off" unnecessary tissues, exposing a small wound. This wound heals by primary tension and practically does not leave a scar.

Technique: how is the mole removed?

Important: only the specialist with relevant experience should deal with the removal of the birthmark. Self-disposal from nevi can lead to serious consequences.

Any of the selected procedures are performed under local anesthesia - with the injection of an anesthetic or a special external analgesic gel.

Removal of moles on the face is usually performed by a laser. This method allows you to eliminate the tumor without further scar formation. The procedure itself lasts only a few minutes, so if desired, the doctor can simultaneously remove several formations at once. Only five minutes after the session, the patient can go home.

Removal of hanging moles is usually performed using electrocoagulation. The whole session lasts no longer than 15-20 minutes, which depends on the diameter and number of removed birthmarks. Before the procedure, the doctor makes anesthesia, applying a special anesthetic gel, or by injection. Further, by heating the tungsten electrode with an electric discharge, the hanging formation is "cut off" one-time. The healthy tissues located in the immediate vicinity are, as it were, cauterized, which prevents the appearance of bleeding from the wound. The material obtained after removal can be sent to a histology, and the wound itself is usually delayed within one week. Similarly, it is possible to carry out removal of convex moles, if they are small and not very deep.

Removal of large moles occurs only surgically. Such an operation is done under local anesthesia, and all removed tissue elements are sent for histology (to exclude or confirm a cancerous tumor). The entire area around the formation is treated with an antiseptic. During the operation, the doctor cuts off partially and healthy tissue, in order to avoid repeated growth of the birthmark. After this, the suture material is applied, which is removed after about one week. The operated patient can immediately go home, but he will have to visit the doctor several times to dress and remove the sutures.

Removal of moles with histological examination is an obligatory manipulation of the surgeon in case of suspected malignant tumor. Only such a study will help to detect even the initial stage of tissue degeneration, cancer and precancerous process. In order to send tissue to the study, they must be as intact as possible. Therefore, histology is possible only when the neoplasms are removed surgically, or by electrocoagulation.

Removal of moles in children is done by the same methods as in adults. The choice of the procedure is determined depending on the age of the patient and his individual sensitivity threshold, as well as on some psychological moments of upbringing. Often, especially when working with young children, doctors prefer to use less traumatic methods - sticking plasters, applying keratolytic drugs, etc. The effectiveness of such procedures is much lower, and the birthmark, disappearing, may appear again. However, the choice of the technique of removal remains with the doctor, who will directly deal with a specific child. Neoplasms try to remove when a child reaches adolescence. However, if they cause the baby some inconvenience, or with unnatural "behavior" of moles they are removed in any period of life of a small patient.

Are there any contraindications to the removal of moles?

It is not recommended to start the procedure:

  • women during menstruation;
  • if there are infectious diseases of the skin in place of the birthmark;
  • in diseases accompanied by deterioration of blood clotting;
  • with severe heart disease.

It is not recommended to remove nevuses to small children without adequate medical advice. In such cases, it is better to wait until they reach adolescence.

trusted-source[9], [10], [11], [12], [13]

What are the consequences after removal of moles?

The consequences after removal may depend on the characteristics of the birthmarks, and also largely on the experience and professionalism of the doctor who conducted the procedure. Important and individual characteristics of the patient: the state of its immunity and the tendency to pigmentation.

Of great importance is the correctness of postoperative care of the wound. If carefully follow the recommendations of the surgeon, the healing process will be much faster and more comfortable.

And yet, what could be the consequences after removal of the nevus?

  • The wound after the removal of the mole heals the faster, the smaller the size of the remote formation. Improper care of the wound can cause prolonged healing, suppuration and inflammation of the tissues, which, in turn, entails the formation of a massive and ugly scar. If the wound is treated correctly, such a complication is practically reduced to zero.
  • The crust after removal of the birthmark is a normal phenomenon, which ensures the protection of the wound surface from the entry of microbes. Self-scraping of the crust is strictly prohibited: it will disappear itself, as soon as the next stage of healing comes. If the rind is ripped off violently, it can lead to exposure of the wound, bleeding, the development of the infectious process. The scar in this case is necessarily formed, and becomes particularly noticeable.
  • The scar after removal of the birthmark can be considered a normal consequence if the formation was removed by external tissue damage (for example, by surgery). The larger the nevus, the longer the scar. Significant scars can be made less noticeable if you use a special treatment that is prescribed by the attending physician. Usually it consists in the processing of the seam with resorptive ointments and injectable administration of substances that contribute to the restoration of damaged tissues.

In addition, the scar can be formed by incorrect management of the postoperative period: if you neglect care of the wound, or forcibly rip off the formed scab, the formation of the scar is inevitable.

  • The red spot after removal of the birthmark is a sign of active granulation of the wound surface - that is, healing. Redness passes independently, in most cases leaving behind only a barely noticeable trace. If the redness is accompanied by edema and soreness - then this is a likely sign of the development of the inflammatory process in the wound.
  • Pain after removal of the birthmark is considered a norm option, if the removal was performed surgically. In this case, the pains are caused by damage to the tissues and nerve endings: they completely self-eradicate during the final healing of the wound. Pulsating pain, as well as soreness, accompanied by reddening and swelling of the zone of intervention, may indicate the development of the inflammatory process. This situation requires immediate medical attention.
  • The tubercle after removal of the mole is most often an infiltrate. Infiltrate develops due to severe tissue trauma, due to poor hemostasis in the body or due to infection. It is a cellular structure impregnated with lymphatic fluid and blood. As a result of the formation of such a tubercle, the healing process of the wound is inhibited or stopped altogether.

An inflammatory infiltrate is characterized by reddening of the skin and painfulness with pressure.

Non-inflammatory infiltrate is formed after some time after the operation and is a tissue saturated with lymph or medicinal preparations. In this case, there are no signs of inflammation.

Typically, non-inflammatory compaction after removal of the mole can go on independently for several weeks and even months. Help in this can physioprocedures, or the use of special regenerating drugs. If there is an inflammatory process, then the intervention of a medical specialist must be mandatory.

  • The fossa after removal of the mole is the place from which the formation was removed. Most pits remain after the laser removal procedure. Over time, the skin in the area of interference is smoothed out, and the fovea is leveled. Usually this happens for six months.

Do complications often occur after removal of the moles?

Like any procedure, removal of birthmarks can lead to the development of complications. To prevent this from happening, it is important that the intervention is carried out by a qualified specialist in the proper clinical setting.

Of course, every patient wants to avoid complications. Because of this, it is strongly recommended to follow all the advice and instructions of the operating doctor.

  • Can the temperature rise after removal of the mole?

Indeed, sometimes there may be a slight increase in temperature. In some cases, this is an individual reaction of the body to a stressful situation and tissue damage - while hyperthermia is accompanied by sweating and chills. Nevertheless, a persistent increase in temperature can mean the development of a complication, an inflammatory process associated with the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the wound. Which of the following was the cause of hyperthermia, the doctor will be able to determine when examining.

  • If an ugly, tumor-shaped scar has formed after the operation, is this normal?

Colloid scar after removal of the birthmark is the result of prolonged septic conditions or chronic inflammatory processes in the body. This scar is bright red, of considerable size, sometimes itchy or painful.

A colloid scar can be formed with improper healing of the postoperative suture, especially when the rehabilitation period occurs against the background of an infectious disease or chronic stress.

To eliminate the non-aesthetic scar, surgical intervention is used, in combination with resorbable and regenerating drugs.

  • How to identify inflammation after removal of a mole?

Inflammatory reaction can develop when getting into the wound infection, with insufficient treatment of the skin during and after surgery, with insufficient care of the wound during the healing period. Inflammation is characterized by reddening and swelling of the wound surface, the appearance of secretions from under the crust, local or general increase in temperature. A general blood test will also show all signs of an inflammatory process.

If the doctor confirms the presence of an infectious inflammation, the patient will be prescribed anti-inflammatory treatment. If there is an abscess, it may be necessary to surgically open the focus.

  • Itching after removal of a mole may mean the development of a complication?

In most cases, itching is an indicator of wound healing and scar formation. If the itching is combined with a fever or other signs of inflammation, then it is necessary and as soon as possible to see a doctor.

  • What if the pus oozes from the wound after removing the birthmark?

Suppuration of the wound is one of the possible complications of any tissue damage, including surgery. It occurs when germs hit the wound surface during or after the procedure. However, the infection can be in the wound and hematogenous way - with a current of blood from the foci of chronic inflammation present in the body. Most often, the causative agent of the abscess is staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

If you do not follow the prescriptions for the postoperative period, bacteria can get into the wound from dirty clothes or the nearest skin, with sweat or sebum. Characteristic symptoms of the abscess are a build-up of redness and swelling in the seam area, the appearance of purulent discharge, an increase in temperature. Treatment - surgical, followed by anti-inflammatory therapy.

Any complications or suspicion of them - this is a serious reason for an obligatory visit to the doctor. Timely medical intervention can prevent further progression of an unfavorable pathological process.

trusted-source[14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19]

Rehabilitation period: what can or can not be done after removal of the birthmark

Observance of certain rules during the rehabilitation period avoids such problems as inflammatory reactions, ugly scars and hyperpigmentation of the skin. For this reason, the doctor's recommendations must be strictly observed. In order to explain how to behave after the procedure for removing the birthmark, we will answer the most frequent questions of patients.

  • How does the mole heal after removal?

After removal of the birthmark with a laser, the healing takes place quite quickly, since the integrity of the skin during the procedure is practically not disturbed. The surface of the skin resembles a small burn, having the appearance of a red speck, without the formation of bubbles and necrotic layers. This speck gets a natural color and heals already for 4-5 days without the formation of scars.

The longest period of healing is observed after removal of the nevus surgically, as this causes maximum damage to the surface tissues and seams are superimposed. Healing of this kind takes place in three stages:

  • postoperative edema, redness, pain;
  • resorption of blood clots, necrotic tissues, self-cleaning of the wound, granulation and growth of epithelial tissue;
  • final regeneration - scar formation and epithelialization.

The duration of complete tightening and each stage separately depends on the depth and size of the wound, on the patient's immunity and on the presence of complications. Often the processing of the postoperative wound and the degree of grooming are critical.

Healing of the wound after the electrocoagulation procedure takes place under the scab - a dark brown crust consisting of a dried mixture of blood and lymph fluid. After self-falling off of the crust, a surface covered with fresh epithelial tissue opens.

  • How is care after removal of a mole?

Special treatment of the skin area after removal of the birthmark is necessary only after a surgical operation. The doctor will prescribe the use of antiseptic solutions and regular dressings. This treatment will need to continue a few days after the removal of stitches.

If the wound healing occurs under the scab, additional processing may not be necessary: it is enough to observe hygiene rules, do not wet the wound, avoid exposure to ultraviolet light and in no case try to remove the crust yourself.

  • What can not be done after removing the birthmark?

After the procedure for removing the birthmark, you can not:

  1. to remain in the sun;
  2. bathe;
  3. use lotions, creams and other cosmetics in the area of removal;
  4. scratch, scratch the place of interference;
  5. to allow friction of the wound against clothing.
  • Can I sunbathe after removing my birthmark?

Sunbathing after the procedure to remove the mole is not recommended, as this can cause the appearance of a pigmented spot. Avoid the sun's rays until the area of the removed skin heals and does not acquire a natural color. This prohibition applies to both sun exposure and solarium.

  • Can I take alcohol after removing my birthmark?

The prohibition on alcohol intake may be due to the following reasons:

  1. It is undesirable to drink alcohol if the doctor after the appointment has prescribed antibiotics or other drugs inside;
  2. Some types of anesthesia (including local anesthesia) are not combined with alcohol intake);
  3. the removal of a birthmark can present a certain stress for a person, so alcohol can become an additional burden on a weakened organism;
  4. It is believed that some liquor (for example, beer, liqueurs, champagne, dessert wines) slow down the restoration of tissues.

Among other things, excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to accidental damage to the seam or the scab, which can provoke bleeding, the development of inflammation, etc.

  • Can I wash myself after removing my birthmark?

After removing the mole, you can wash yourself, after gluing the damaged skin with a waterproof plaster. To wet a wound it is impossible until the complete epithelization of the process.

  • Can I go to the bath after removing the birthmark?

Visiting a sauna or sauna after the removal of a mole is not recommended, as this can lead to infection of the process and create difficulties with wound healing.

  • Than to process a skin after excision of a birthmark?

Most often after the removal procedure it is recommended to use such antiseptic solutions as hydrogen peroxide, brilliant green solution, furacilin solution, fucocin, etc. This question should be clarified with your doctor.

  • Will manganese fit after removing the mole?

A solution of potassium permanganate can also be used to wash the wound. To do this, it is necessary to dilute the powder in water until a pink liquid is obtained. Dark saturated solutions should not be used in order not to get a chemical burn and not to aggravate the situation.

  • Can I use baneocin after removing my birthmark?

To accelerate the healing of the wound, you can use the drug baneocin, but not as an ointment, but in the form of a powder. Powder is sprinkled with wound after pre-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. This treatment can be repeated several times a day, but not more than one week in a row.

  • Is the ointment used after removal of the mole?

Healing ointments can be used only a few days after the procedure, and only after approval by the doctor. Many ointments prevent oxygen from entering the wound, thereby worsening healing and prolonging the regeneration process.

  • Can I use solcoseryl after removing my birthmark?

Ointment solkoseril stimulates metabolic processes in tissues, contributing to their rapid recovery. The drug can be applied only on a dry wound surface a few days after removal of the nevus, when the surface epithelial layer is already formed.

  • What is a band-aid after the removal of a birthmark?

Indeed, there are special plasters that prevent contamination of the wound and its infection. The patch is applied to the seam area or directly to the wound. When choosing this tool, you should consider the following points:

  1. the plaster should be "breathing" and let oxygen pass to the wound surface;
  2. should not cause allergies;
  3. It should be easily removed from the skin without leaving traces of glue and without causing irritation.

The most popular types of such healing patches are Cosmopor, Fixopor S, Hudrofilm.

Usually, the period of healing of the skin at the removal sites is 2-3 weeks, but completely aesthetic appearance will be restored in about 1-2 months. If the removal of moles was carried out because of suspicion of malignant degeneration, then after the procedure it is necessary to submit the material for histological examination, on which further treatment depends.

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