The appearance of moles on the body is a normal physiological process, having its own causes. Small flat nevuses on the baby's body touch the parents. A lovely mole on the cheek, shoulder or buttock is considered even a kind of charm or "zest" in the image of a person. Whatever the reason for the appearance of moles, they will always be the object of close attention, since the information received from anywhere about the possibility of nevi-congenital degeneration in melanoma remains relevant in any case. Of particular concern is when we notice that the moles have become convex, have changed color or shape.
Causes of the a convex mole
The fact that the mole has changed its shape does not yet indicate that skin cancer develops in its place. Let's just say, initially most moles are flat. The exception is angiomas and small convex birthmarks, which appeared in childhood. In themselves, moles are not malignant neoplasms on the skin, and they tend to grow with a person, becoming larger in diameter and slightly elevating above the surface of the skin.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that this process does not need to be given importance. If the flat birthmark became convex, but was not injured and did not succumb to the excessive influence of ultraviolet (not sunbathing in the sun or in the solarium), then the probability of its degeneration is very small. Its gradual growth and slight elevation above the surface of the skin will most likely be a safe natural process.
Another thing, if the birthmark was exposed to mechanical influence or the influence of ultraviolet rays, after which its active growth was noticed. This is already a cause for concern and an occasion to visit your dermatologist, and possibly a dermatoonologist.
The fact is that moles are places where the body's defense is minimal. The so-called "weak place" of man. Especially it concerns border nevuses, such here on the kind harmless dark, more often flat specks. The impact on these sites of negative factors, such as sunlight or trauma (strokes, wounds, burns, severe friction, bites, etc.), leads to a change in melanocytes and their transformation into cancer cells, which because of the weak connection between themselves have a property with time quickly spread throughout the body in the form of metastases.
The fact that the flat birthmark has become convex, has changed its size and shape, can be one of the symptoms of its degeneration into a malignant tumor. But to speak about the high probability of this process is possible only in the presence of other signs of degeneration, such as:
Change in the color of the birthmark: the appearance of dark inclusions with signs of tissue death, uneven coloring, redness in place of the nevus.
Change in shape: noticeable asymmetry of the nevus, uneven edges, active growth.
Unusual sensations: itching, tingling, burning or pain in the place of a nevus.
By and large, to answer the question, why the birthmark has become convex, can only the specialist on the basis of the patient's questioning and certain studies on good quality. If there is concern about the birthmark, it is better to pay a visit to the dermatologist and make sure that it's okay with the birthmark, than start the process and reap the unpleasant fruits of its short-sightedness.
Complications and consequences
The consequences can be the most tragic, if in time to prevent the development of melanoma. The initial stages of this insidious disease are easily amenable to treatment. With a timely and correct approach to the treatment (removal) of the mole, recovery comes quickly and without complications. If the cancer tumor has released its roots (metastases) to other organs, the prognosis becomes far less rosy. Sometimes such carelessness can cost a person not only health, but also life.
Diagnostics of the a convex mole
Any birthmark, including a convex one, is of special interest to the doctor in terms of the possibility of its degeneration from benign formation into a cancer tumor. It should be understood that whatever the reason for the birth of a mole, whatever it is (from melanocytes or vascular mesh), any changes in it indicate that a certain process has begun in certain layers of the skin. But whether the growth of a birthmark or its elevation over the skin is associated with the development of cancer, it can be determined only by a physician using the methods of differential diagnosis.
By eye, you can only determine whether a mole can be dangerous, but how true this diagnosis is, can tell only the results of instrumental research. Nevertheless, something can be learned from the patient's story, which will give the doctor to understand whether there is a need for such studies.
In an interview with a dermatologist, it is important to mention that the moles have become convex, although initially they were flush with the skin. It is necessary to tell about when the pigment spot appeared, whether it was exposed to traumatic factors, what feelings you experience in connection with the growth of the nevus. The doctor can ask questions about your family, about the past generations, to find out the hereditary predisposition to the development of cancer, in particular melanoma, and also to inquire about your state of health.
Instrumental diagnosis of a convex mole is carried out with a special microscope in a 10-fold magnification, called a dermatoscope. This device allows you to get a clear neat image of the nevus, which the doctor sees on the screen of the monitor, and create and save in the computer memory the maternity pattern on the human body for future diagnostic studies.
An even more complete picture gives one of the variants of dermatoscopy - computer-based epiluminescence diagnostics, which allows to enlighten the mole in depth.
If a suspected development of melanoma is sometimes prescribed radioisotope study, when a person is given an empty stomach to drink a special drug with radioactive phosphorus, and then make measurements of the amount of the isotope in the mole and on the skin area, symmetric with the pigmented spot.
The thermometric method of diagnosis of nevi is based on various indications of the temperature of a healthy area of the skin and affected by melanoma. This difference can reach 4 degrees.
Diagnosis of a convex birthmark does not include the usual analyzes for us. They can be required only in the case of prompt removal of the tumor. Nevertheless, the most important role in the diagnosis of moles is given to this type of laboratory research, as histological examination of nevus cells. A biopsy is also a kind of analysis, but research takes a piece of mole tissue that causes suspicion.
Most often a biopsy is performed after the removal of a suspicious mole. Investigations of the resulting material will help to understand how dangerous the tumor was, and whether metastases remained after it.
A variant of histological examination without removal of a birthmark is a puncture biopsy, when using a special needle under a local anesthetic, several nevus cells are taken for further investigation.
Any variant of histological examination gives a virtually 100% accurate diagnosis. If doubts still exist or there is no possibility of a biopsy, and everything indicates that the risk of developing melanoma is high, the patient can be sent to ultrasound, x-ray or even an MRI.
The most actual type of treatment for moles is only their removal. If the birthmarks became bulging, but the studies did not confirm their malignancy, indications for their removal can only be an uncomfortable location of the nevus, leading to injury, or a hereditary predisposition to oncological diseases. Removal of moles "just in case" in medical institutions is not carried out, because the wrong removal of a healthy birthmark in itself can cause skin cancer in the place of the nevus.
Removal of a convex mole can be carried out by various methods:
removal of nevus with a laser
exposure to a mole of low temperatures - freezing with liquid nitrogen, or cryodestruction
effect on the pigmented spot of electric current (electrocoagulation)
removal of the birthmark by means of high frequency waves (radio wave removal).
All methods, except for surgical intervention, do not cause painful sensations and leave no noticeable traces behind them. The healing usually passes quickly and without complications.
Removal of a convex mole in the last stages of development of melanoma may not bring the desired result, and the tumor will continue its growth. In such cases, antitumor drugs come to the rescue. Such drugs can produce a temporary effect, such as "Ipilimumab" or "Nivolumab", which can stop the growth of the tumor for up to 1 year. They are able to help patients at the last stage of skin cancer, reducing the size of the tumor.
But the drug "Refonte" found its application in the therapy of fast-growing tumors. It promotes the production of the necessary antibodies by the body and simultaneously affects the tumor, causing weakening of cancer cells and necrosis (dying off) of the tumor center. The drug shows fairly good results in the complex therapy, including chemotherapy.
Alternative treatment of a convex mole
If you do not trust doctors or are simply afraid of an operation to remove moles, and that's why you turned to alternative means of treatment (removal) of a birthmark, you need to understand that you are putting yourself at considerable risk. Before removing the birthmark in any case, it is necessary to conduct its diagnosis in order to exclude the presence of melanoma or other malignant formation.
Removing malignant neoplasm at home can lead to complications. First, you can not remove melanoma completely, and the remaining cells that have undergone a traumatic factor will develop even faster. Thus, you not only will not cure cancer, but will provoke its accelerated course, which is fraught with even a fatal outcome or a longer and now less effective treatment in a hospital.
Secondly, during the procedure, you can additionally substitute an infection that provokes inflammation or relapse of the disease. The latter is also relevant for healthy moles, when removing them, sterility was not sufficiently maintained.
If you notice that some flat birthmarks have become bulging with time, and this gives you inconveniences, but after reading the consequences of home treatment, you remain unshakable in your decision, we recommend that you pay attention to the safest recipes of alternative medicine.
To such means of alternative treatment of a convex mole, recipes based on honey, onion, potato, linseed or castor oil, cauliflower juice, lemon, sour apple can be referred. If they do not even bring the desired result, they can not seriously harm. Most of these products have a bleaching effect.
With caution should be treated in recipes based on garlic, vinegar, iodine, celandine and milkweed, which have a more aggressive effect. Nevertheless, these funds can not only discolor, but also remove the birthmark, leaving no trace of it.
An important point: Whichever method of treatment you choose, it is necessary to carry out the removal of a birthmark after medical diagnosis and under the supervision of a specialist doctor, who in case of that will be able to correct the consequences of an unsuccessful alternative treatment of a convex mole in time.
On the basis of the above, it is logical to conclude that sometimes the change of moles is easier to prevent than to treat the consequences of these changes. The probability of degeneration of a birthmark in melanoma is much lower if the birthmark is not exposed to long-term exposure to sunlight and UV rays, and to take measures to reduce the possibility of injury.
Sometimes, especially in the case of convex moles, even a preventive removal may be necessary. But this is better than accidentally scratching a birthmark, ripping off or damaging clothing, which can lead to a pathological process. Removal of a birthmark may be necessary if it is located in places that are difficult to protect from the sun by clothing, and there is a hereditary predisposition to the onset of melanoma.
The prognosis of moles removal in such cases is favorable, complications arise only in case of incorrectly diagnosed or unprofessionally conducted treatment. If the birthmarks have become convex and have undergone other changes, despite all the measures taken, the timely access to the doctor will certainly help you to save life and health, which are the main components of simple human happiness.
Last update: 01.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Why should you know how dangerous and non-dangerous changes in moles look like ? Because birthmarks (melanocytic nevi) are found in most people, moles are of several types and can vary, and some of them increase the risk of developing this type of skin cancer
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