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Vesicular stomatitis

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 18.06.2018
 
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Vesicular stomatitis is an acute infectious disease, which, often, affects representatives of the animal world (mainly cattle). But this disease can affect people. Vesicular stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of a rash on the mucous membrane of the mouth: watery vesicles. Sometimes the ailment can pass and is asymptomatic.

Cases of infection with vesicular stomatitis are most often recorded in the American continent, Asia (India, China) and a few countries in Europe. The outbreak of the disease mainly occurs during the hot season - August, September.

Causes of vesicular stomatitis

Vesylovirus - RNA-containing virus - is the cause of vesicular stomatitis. This causative agent belongs to the genus Vesiculorus, which, in turn, is part of the family Rabdoviridae. Vesylovirus is a zoonotic character, although cases and infections of people are not uncommon. The possibility of infection of a person with this disease occurs by direct contact with a sick animal: milking, cleaning, slaughtering, or through mosquitoes (in particular from the genus Aedes) and mosquitoes (genus Phlebotomus) through insects carrying the virus of vesicular stomatitis from agricultural mammals. It can be concluded that in the field of risk there are mainly people working in agricultural industries, as well as veterinarians and laboratory workers.

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Symptoms of vesicular stomatitis

Recall that the disease with vesicular stomatitis is most often diagnosed in the summer period when insects are rampaging, and hot weather provokes the appearance of various diseases. The incubation period of the virus after ingestion into the human body is 2-6 days, after which the infected person begins to feel headache, pain during eye movement, general muscle weakness, chills, runny nose, fever. Patients also often complain of an increase in lymph nodes in the cervical region. Characteristic for this disease is the appearance on the mucous membrane of the mouth of vesicles filled with water - vesicles, around which a red contour is formed. These vesicles are localized, mainly on the lips, gums, tongue and inner surface of the cheeks. Vesicles are quite painful, so eating with this disease causes a very unpleasant sensation.

Enterovirus vesicular stomatitis in children

Diseases of enterovirus vesicular stomatitis are affected by small children, so among adults this disease is almost not found. The disease has a viral character, which can be transmitted by airborne and fecal-oral. The causative agent of enteroviral vesicular stomatitis is Coxsackie virus A-16 from the genus Enteroviruses. The most favorable environment for the virus is hot weather with high humidity, so it is during the summer that children are most likely to catch this infection. It should be noted that this type of disease is not transmitted through animals, but is a child's viral disease.

The main symptom of this viral disease is the appearance of watery vesicles not only on the mucous membrane of the mouth, but also on the palms and feet, from which the enterovirus vesicular stomatitis was called the "hand-foot-mouth" syndrome. Sometimes in the literature one can find an alternative name for this disease: enterovirus vesicular stomatitis with exanthema and coxsack virus. Children fall into the risk zone of this ailment after suffering a respiratory disease, as the immune system is weakened, and can not withstand the new virus at full strength. Enteroviruses spread quickly enough, because they are carriers of both humans and insects.

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Symptoms and treatment of enterovirus vesicular stomatitis

Symptoms of the disease, in addition to watery vesicles (vesicles), are fever, runny nose, pain in the goal, weakness in the body and muscle pain. The child's activity noticeably decreases, he becomes irritable and lethargic. Note that vesicles are quite painful, and their appearance provokes itching.

Enterovirus vesicular stomatitis is treated quickly enough and passes without a trace, if in time to see a doctor. As a medicine, you can recommend the immunomodulator "Interferon", which will not only help to quickly cope with the disease, but also become a good preventive drug to combat childhood viral diseases. Treatment of enterovirus vesicular stomatitis is carried out in the same way as vesicular stomatitis, that is, symptomatic. The disease is not required to be started, since there is a danger of complications in the form of meningitis, acute flaccid paresis, encephalitis.

Prevention of enterovirus vesicular stomatitis and its complications

Prevention of the disease is the overall strengthening of the child's organism, healthy and adequate nutrition. Careful hand washing is also a good prevention of enterovirus vesicular stomatitis, since the virus can also be transmitted by contact. Tempering the body has a very positive effect on strengthening the immune system. If a child has taken up this ailment, it must be temporarily isolated from other children, since the infection spreads very quickly.

Prevention of complications is the exclusion of uncontrolled use of antibiotics, which only reduce the protective reaction of the body's immune system. Parents should carefully monitor the oral cavity of their offspring, in time to perform the rinsing procedure.

Vesicular stomatitis in animals

Vesicular stomatitis is, by nature, primarily a disease of ungulates, which causes fever, excessive salivation, decreased appetite, and the formation of watery blisters of various sizes - vesicles. The rash is observed in the oral cavity and mucous membrane of the nose, the lower part of the abdomen, as well as in the intercose gaps.

The virus of vesicular stomatitis usually affects cattle. Horses, pigs, mules, sheep are also susceptible to this disease, but to a lesser extent. In the wild, vesicular stomatitis is found among wild boars, deer, roe deer, raccoons. Young growth from six months to two years is most susceptible to the disease. The virus spreads mainly by airborne droplets and through the bites of insects - carriers of the disease. The source of the virus is an infected animal whose virus can be spread through water, feed, milking plants. An animal that has transferred vesicular stomatitis acquires immunity to this virus for 6-12 months.

Symptoms of vesicular stomatitis in animals

Vesicular stomatitis causes fever in animals, abundant salivation, as well as the appearance of vesicles of different sizes. Watery vesicles are mainly concentrated on the mucous membrane: on the lips, inside the cheeks, tongue, palate. Often, the animals are affected by a nasal mirror, udders and interculent clefts (in cattle), as well as the wings of the nose, the ears, the lower abdomen, the corolla of the hoof (in horses). Usually the disease lasts about two weeks, after which the animals are on the mend. But there are also cases of death, in particular, the younger generation.

Treatment and prevention of vesicular stomatitis in animals

Treatment of vesicular stomatitis in animals, as in humans, implies symptomatic therapy. During treatment resort to antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs. An animal suffering from a disease is often watered and fed with soft food. Prevention of vesicular stomatitis is the vaccination of livestock to strengthen the immune system. It is noticed that at the first vaccination the animal acquires immunity for 2-3 months, and with the repeated procedure the duration of immunity is 12 months. If there is a suspicion of contamination of an animal with an RNA-containing virus, it must be immediately protected from other mammals. In case of dissemination of vesicular stomatitis among livestock, it is necessary to take measures to quarantine the terrain.

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Diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis

Diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis is performed by a dentist or infectious disease doctor. The patient is referred for a serological or virological examination, but it is usually not difficult to recognize the disease, since it has characteristic features and a way of flowing.

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Treatment of vesicular stomatitis

During the treatment of vesicular stomatitis, the doctor prescribes symptomatic therapy, since there is no direct treatment for the disease, as such. Symptomatic treatment includes a full rest, plenty of drink, taking antipyretic drugs, treating the oral mucosa with antiseptic solutions (Suprastin, Hexetidine, Pilpofen), antiviral ointments - redoxol, oxolin and tebrofen. The doctor often prescribes various anti-therapeutic drugs ("Famciclovir", "Acyclovir", "Valaciclovir"), which are sold in pharmacies in the form of ointments or in tablets. Signs of the disease quickly go away, and the patient recovers if he adheres to the prescriptions of the doctor. Vesicular stomatitis, as a rule, does not give complications, unless, of course, you start the disease and do not watch yourself.

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Prevention of vesicular stomatitis

Prevention of vesicular stomatitis includes compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and animal hygiene. If there are people among the family members or acquaintances, it must be isolated from the environment for the time of illness, since the disease is viral. To prevent disease, it is necessary to avoid visiting countries and regions where the disease of vesicular stomatitis is a frequent occurrence, especially during the hot season.

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