Although the chemical structure of exogenous succinic acid is similar to that which is a metabolite of the intracellular cycle of tricarboxylic acids, in its pure form it is rarely included in the formulation. Even in succinic acid tablets, according to the instructions, the pharmacologically active component is acetylamino succinic acid. Chelation compounds - salts and chemically analogous succinate esters - are used to increase the intestinal absorption of drugs with succinic acid.
Thus, the pharmacodynamics of the regulatory effects on the metabolism of drugs such as Mexipridol is due to succinate 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine (ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate), which is a succinic acid derivative.
Producers argue that drugs containing this substance regulate not only the processes of oxidation in cells and increase the level of adenosine triphosphate, but also normalize the work of the vessels of the brain, the heart muscle (primarily in hypoxia), the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands etc. However, the biochemical process of the whole range of beneficial effects that drugs with succinic acid exert in the instructions is most often not explained (for example, how they reduce cholesterol in the blood or relieve vegetovascular symptoms and increase immunity); at best, the mechanism of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is described.
Mexidol is the succinate of emoxipin, and Limontar is succinic acid (in each 200 mg tablet) and citric acid monohydrate (50 g), whose main task is not only to improve metabolism, but also to increase the production of gastric juice.
The pharmacodynamics of the antioxidant vitamin Citoflavin is described in more detail. In addition to succinic acid, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is included, and the precursors of adenosine triphosphate are riboxin (inosine) and vitamin PP (niacin). That is, the action of the drug is provided by all the ingredients in the complex.
In the Reamberin solution used to remove toxic substances from the body, the active substance - N-methylamonium sodium succinate, which helps stabilize the cell membranes, slows the oxidation of fatty acids and activates the cleavage of glucose to compensate for energy costs under hypoxic conditions.
The pharmacodynamics of Gelofusin, a colloidal solution of succinylated medical gelatin, is based on an increase in the osmotic pressure, which results in the volume of fluid in the vessels increasing after the introduction of this drug into the vein with significant blood loss, providing the work of the heart.
Hyalual Arto - a preparation of hyaluronic acid with succinic acid - is used for viscosupplementation - introduction into the joint bag for the replacement of synovial fluid, partially or completely lost with deforming arthrosis of various joints. Amber acid activates the metabolism in bone and cartilage tissues and improves the mobility of damaged joints.