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Poisoning with oils: butter, vegetable, essential

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 23.10.2021
 
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A large number of people around the world suffer from food poisoning every year. This is due to the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms or containing toxic substances of a different nature. The objects of propagation of pathogens of pathology are various products that have a limited sale period, requiring certain storage and preparation conditions. Oil is no exception, poisoning with which is not so rare.

Epidemiology

There are no separate statistics on the accounting of poisoning by animals and vegetable oils, but the figures for all food are threatening. Their geography is vast, regardless of what stage of development the country is at.

Causes of the oil poisoning

In butter of animal origin, milk fats predominate (on the packaging we see the percentage of fat content, in most cases fluctuating within 69% -82.5%). The product may deteriorate due to:

  • storage without a refrigerator  -  there is an intensive multiplication of pathogenic bacteria;
  • exposure to direct sunlight and access to atmospheric oxygen  - the  oil is oxidized, toxic aldehydes and ketones are formed;
  • violation of the integrity of the package  -  mold develops, producing mycotoxins.

Vegetable oils in violation of production and purification technologies contain carcinogens (benzopyrene), pesticides, heavy metals that can cause poisoning.

Risk factors

The likelihood of butter poisoning increases:

  • handicraft method of its production, violation of sanitary standards;
  • contamination of milk with salmonella (bacteria can be stored in oil for up to six months);
  • purchase of a loose product that does not have documents confirming the quality, especially in the summer.

Risk factors for consuming vegetable oils include:

  • plastic containers;
  • storage in places of sun exposure;
  • buying draft on spontaneous markets.

Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of oil poisoning is divided into microbial (toxicoinfection, toxicosis, mixed etiology) and non-microbial. In the first case, pathogenic microorganisms, multiplying, release toxins, the accumulation of which in the body leads to a general toxic syndrome, changes in the gastrointestinal tract; in the second  ,  chemical impurities have a harmful effect.

Symptoms of the oil poisoning

The first signs of poisoning are expressed by nausea, vomiting, cramps and pains in the abdomen and stomach area. Moreover, bouts of vomiting can be irrepressible. With a strong lesion, a high temperature rises, chills, aching joints, muscle pain, weakness in the whole body appear.

Most often there is diarrhea, sometimes very strong, the feces sometimes contain bloody, mucous fragments and have a fetid odor.

Poisoning with butter

Most of us (with the exception of vegetarians) cannot do without butter. This is due to its excellent taste, the content of a large amount of substances necessary for the body (vitamins A, K, E, D, PP, minerals: potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, copper and others), high calorie content (saturates for a long time), 90 % assimilation.

Its daily consumption in the amount of 10-30g will bring undoubted health benefits, if only it is fresh. A spoiled product that has changed its color, a moldy smell, containing various additives, as evidenced by its low price, causes the most severe poisoning with all the symptoms characteristic of them. [1]

Vegetable oil poisoning

Before entering retail chains, vegetable oil goes through a multi-stage process from obtaining oilseed raw materials, its extraction, refining, deodorization to packaging. Only powerful production facilities are able to withstand all the requirements for the quality of the product, pass tests for it. [2]

Our fields are full of sunflowers, many farms have small oil mills, but are their products safe? Harmful impurities, non-observance of storage conditions cause poisoning with vegetable oil, including sunflower oil.

Olive oil is imported into the country from abroad, and if it is packaged in our country, it is possible that counterfeit products will enter the consumer market.

Another danger comes from spoiled product. This is evidenced by its rancid taste, having felt which, you must definitely throw it away and no longer use it. [3], [4]

Essential oil poisoning

Symptoms specific to poisoning can appear not only from its internal consumption, but also from external use due to rubbing, massages, baths. The most possible poisoning:

  • fusel oils - happen to lovers of cheap alcohol, since they are a by-product of alcoholic fermentation. Manifested by dry mouth, dizziness due to a sharp expansion of the vessels of the brain, coughing, lacrimation, a feeling of stunnedness may occur; [5], [6]
  • castor oil - obtained from castor oil plant, a very toxic plant. It is used to make medicinal ointments and balms, it is most often taken internally for constipation, but there are other indications. Exceeding the recommended dose can cause poisoning, expressed in diarrhea, abdominal cramps, sometimes hallucinations up to loss of consciousness; [7]
  • vaseline oil - an oily substance, a petroleum product, is used internally to facilitate bowel movements, externally used for body and hair care. Overdose causes indigestion, nausea; [8]
  • fir oil - it has a rich chemical composition, which provides a wide range of its use in medicine, cosmetology: for inhalation, rinsing, baths, as part of balms, ointments for healing wounds, getting rid of joint pain. Failure to follow instructions can lead to poisoning with its inherent manifestations;
  • camphor oil - intended for external use for myositis, arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica. Accidental ingestion may cause vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain; [9], [10]
  • linseed oil - it is easy for them to be poisoned, since its shelf life is only 1 month. Initially, it has a specific smell and is slightly bitter, but unsuitable for consumption is strongly rancid and has a sharp taste. Together with many beneficial properties for the body thanks to vitamins A, E, omega-3, omega-6 (on the cardiovascular, nervous, immune systems, digestion), it can be harmful, causing serious disturbances; [11]
  • celandine oil - the plant contains alkaloids, it contains carotene, ascorbic acid, saponins, flavonoids, resinous substances, organic acids. This makes it possible to use different parts of the herb to treat many diseases. But it also carries in itself danger, since celandine is poisonous. Wrong prescription, violation of doses of use causes poisoning, sometimes even with paralysis of the respiratory center. [12]

Poisoning with machine oil

Engine oil is essential for cars to perform their functions. But sometimes, under the confluence of certain unfavorable circumstances (it can be confused with food or it will fall into the reach of children), it is taken orally.

Such chemical poisoning is dangerous not only by the ingress of petroleum products into the body, but can lead to burns of the mouth, larynx, and esophagus. The only correct solution in such a situation is to call an ambulance. [13]

Complications and consequences

The most common consequence of oil poisoning is intestinal dysfunction, the development of renal and liver failure. Complications such as gastritis and gastroduodenitis, inflammation of the pancreas are also quite real .

Diagnostics of the oil poisoning

In making a diagnosis, it is very important to collect an epidemiological history, it is determined whether food poisoning or intoxication from chemicals.

The circumstances of the disease are clarified, in the first case it is important to determine the possible focus of infection in order to eliminate it and prevent spread, to know how much time has passed from the consumption of the product to the appearance of the first signs of poisoning.

Clinical symptoms allow a preliminary diagnosis to be made, and laboratory tests of blood, urine, vomit, and feces will confirm it. If necessary, instrumental diagnostics are connected: ultrasound of internal organs, gastroendoscopy, electrocardiogram, etc.

Treatment of the oil poisoning

The first step in treating oil poisoning is gastric lavage . To do this, you must drink a large amount of liquid (a weak solution of potassium permanganate or baking soda) and induce vomiting. If it is already present, then postpone the procedure until a later date.

An important role is played by enterosorbents, which absorb and remove toxins from the body. Warm tea, copious drinking of other liquids, a warmer on the legs - these facilitate the condition of the event.

If the condition worsens, which is manifested by fever, severe headache, diarrhea, the appearance of bloody discharge in the feces, their stench, convulsions, you must immediately go to the hospital, where urgent measures will be taken: droppers will be used to cleanse the blood of toxic substances and replenish fluid (intravenous rehydration ), if necessary - antibiotics, organize dietary meals.

Medicines

The list of enterosorbents used for food poisoning is very wide and is divided into several groups:

  • organic - made from natural ingredients (multisorb, polyphepan);
  • carbon - derivatives of activated carbon;
  • silicon (polysorb, smecta, enterosgel).
  • Polyphepan  is a powder from hydrolyzed wood lignin. It is dissolved in water or taken from a spoon with a liquid one hour before meals. Children under 1 year old - a teaspoon, 1-7 years old - dessert, older - a tablespoon 3-4 times a day. Acute conditions require a treatment period of 3-10 days, but can be extended up to 2 weeks. Contraindicated in patients with gastritis with secretory insufficiency, with constipation. Able to cause allergic reactions, prolonged use leads to hypovitaminosis.
  • If it is impossible to flush the stomach, apomorphine hydrochloride is used - an emetic is administered as a subcutaneous injection, vomiting occurs after a few minutes. The dose for children is 0.1-0.3 ml, for adults - 0.2-0.5 ml.

Not prescribed for babies under 2 years old, with atherosclerosis, ulcers, tuberculosis, burns of the stomach with acids and alkalis. From side effects, the drug can cause a sharp drop in blood pressure, skin rash, itching, neurological disorders.

  • Severe poisoning may require increased heart activity. For this, corazole is used in tablets at a dose of 0.1 g 2-3 times a day (for children under one year old - 0.005-0.010 g, 2-5 years old - 0.02-0.03 g, 6-12 years old - 0.03-0, 05g, single dose for adults - 0.2g). The drug in the form of a solution is also injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously. It is not prescribed for aortic aneurysm, an active form of tuberculosis.
  • Enzyme preparations help to restore intestinal function after poisoning: gtenol, mezim , festal , pangrol, creon.

Pangrol  is available in capsules with different lipolytic activity, expressed in units of the European Pharmacopoeia (ED EF). Produced from the pancreas of pigs. There are 2 dosages of the drug: 10,000 and 25,000 ED EF, the appropriateness of each is determined by the doctor according to the indications. The capsules are swallowed whole and washed down with plenty of water.

Not recommended for pregnant and lactating women due to the lack of sufficient test data on the effect of the drug on the fetus and infants. Pangrol very rarely causes nausea, abdominal discomfort, and allergic reactions.

Vitamins

The loss of fluid that occurs during poisoning as a result of vomiting and diarrhea leads to the leaching of vitamins and minerals from the body. To restore health, it is necessary to include more foods in the diet, which contain useful ingredients and take vitamin and mineral complexes.

Vitamins A, C, PP, group B can strengthen immunity, improve metabolism, restore the damaged mucous membrane of the digestive organs.

Physiotherapy treatment

Mineral alkaline waters help to remove toxic substances from the body, improve the digestive system in a healthy way. Healing waters can only be prescribed by a doctor, but medical-table waters (with a low degree of mineralization) are drunk without fear of harming themselves, they help restore water balance and strength.

Alternative treatment

Help to overcome food poisoning, uncontrollable diarrhea, including oil, such recipes:

  • pour boiling water over the dried pomegranate peel, let it brew for 20-30 minutes, drink a third of a glass 3 times a day;
  • beat and drink the whites of several eggs;
  • dissolve a teaspoon of potato starch in a glass of water at room temperature, drink at one time;
  • dip a pack of gelatin in warm water (1 glass) until dissolved, drink.

Herbal treatment

In the arsenal of herbalists there are many plants that help to cope with oil poisoning. Among them are:

  • decoction of dill seeds with the addition of honey;
  • St. John's wort tea;
  • infusion of yarrow and wormwood;
  • collection of calendula, chamomile, plantain (can be brewed in a thermos).

Homeopathy

With food poisoning, homeopathy can help with the following means:

  • lycopodium;
  • tsinkhona;
  • carbo vegetabilis;
  • ipecacuanha;
  • arsenicum album.

Granules dissolve under the tongue, often in acute conditions, less often as they improve. The appointment will be made by a homeopath.

Prevention

Food poisoning prevention is about improving food hygiene. When buying oil, you need to be interested in the date of its production and the period of sale, do not take it by weight in spontaneous markets. When using essential oils, follow the instructions strictly.

Forecast

Timely and adequately responding to poisoning, as a rule, it is possible to avoid life-threatening consequences. In the overwhelming majority, the prognosis is favorable.

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