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Nalidixic acid

Nalidixic acid is an artificial antibacterial drug.

Indications of the nalidixic acid

It is shown mainly for the treatment of infectious processes (provoked by bacteria that are sensitive to the action of drugs) in the urinary tract: pyelitis with cystitis, and in addition pyelonephritis. The drug demonstrates the highest effectiveness in the treatment of acute forms of infection.

It is also used in the prevention of the development of infections due to operations on the bladder with the kidneys.

It is recommended for elimination of cholecystitis with enterocolitis, as well as for inflammation in the middle ear and other pathologies that are provoked by bacteria sensitive to drugs (they are resistant to other antibacterial drugs).

Release form

Produced in tablets or capsules with a volume of 0.5 g.

Pharmacodynamics

The drug effectively acts in the case of the development of infectious processes provoked by gram-negative microbes, and in addition to dysentery, intestinal, as well as typhoid rods and proteus (a type of microbes that in a certain environment can provoke infection of the stomach and small intestine), as well as klebsiella pneumonia (microorganism, causing pulmonary inflammation and local fading processes). It has bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties (it hinders the processes of reproduction of pathogenic microbes and destroys them). Its effectiveness is also high and relatively resistant to sulfonamides with antibiotics strains.

Weak influence on gram-positive cocci (pneumo-, staphylo- and strepto-), as well as pathogenic anaerobes (which can live in complete absence of oxygen and provoke human diseases).

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption of the drug is fast and almost complete (in the digestive tract). The level of bioavailability is 96%. To achieve peak serum values, the substance takes 1-2 hours, and to obtain a similar level in the urine - 3-4 hours.

The medicine with its active decay product is distributed inside many tissues, and most actively it occurs inside urine and kidneys. The indices inside the serum are quite low. A small amount of drugs penetrates the placental barrier and passes into the mother's milk. Metabolism of the element is carried out inside the liver (also metabolized and 30% of the active degradation product - hydroxynadichydic acid).

Excretion occurs with the help of the kidneys: 2-3% of the substance is deduced unchanged, another 13% - in the form of an active decay product. The remaining 80% is excreted under the guise of inactive decay products. Together with feces about 4% is excreted.

The time of serum half-life (with normal functioning of the kidneys) is 1.1-2.5 hours. If there are disorders of renal function, this indicator is equal to the 21st hour.

Practically full excretion is carried out during 24 hours.

Use of the nalidixic acid during pregnancy

It is forbidden to appoint to pregnant women.

Contraindications

Among the contraindications: suppression of respiratory processes and frustration in the work of the liver, and in addition, children's age is less than 2 years.

It is prescribed with caution to people suffering from disorders of kidney function.

It is impossible to combine medicine with nitrofurans, because this weakens its antibacterial properties.

Side effects of the nalidixic acid

Often, there are no problems with the use of medication, but sometimes side effects such as diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, headaches, and nausea can develop.

It is also possible the appearance of allergy symptoms - an increase in temperature, skin inflammation or dermatitis, an increase in the number of eosinophils (the development of eosinophilia), and besides this, the sensitivity of the skin can be increased relative to the sun's rays (development of photodermatosis).

People who suffer from disorders of the circulatory processes in the brain, as well as epilepsy or parkinsonism, may develop seizures.

It is necessary to avoid the risk of overdose in children, because this can provoke the appearance of severe seizures.

If negative manifestations are severe, full or temporary cancellation of the drug is required.

Dosing and administration

The adult dose is 0.5 grams of medication, and in case of severe infection, one should drink four times a day. The therapeutic course lasts a minimum of 1 week. In case of prolonged treatment, it is required to drink 0.5 g of medicinal products four times a day.

The child's dosage is calculated in a ratio of 60 mg / kg, and the daily dose is divided into 4 equal doses.

Overdose

Manifestations of an overdose are: an increase in the level of ICP, as well as the development of seizures, toxic psychosis or metabolic acidosis. In addition, an overdose can cause vomiting with nausea and a lethargic state.

With the development of violations of the patient must be sent to inpatient treatment, where he will be carefully monitored by doctors. Supportive and symptomatic therapy is performed.

Interactions with other drugs

The drug increases the effect of indirect anticoagulants, and nitrofurans are able to weaken its antibacterial properties.

Combination with warfarin can increase the strength of the latter. Therefore, when combined, it is required to monitor the indices of MNO or PV. In addition, it may be necessary to adjust the size of the anticoagulant dosage.

Since the development of the antibacterial action of nalidixic acid requires the multiplication of cells of pathogenic bacteria, the properties of drugs can be suppressed if bacteriostatic agents are used (for example, chloramphenicol and tetracycline).

Combined use with melphalan increases the likelihood of developing gastrointestinal poisoning.

Storage conditions

The medicine is stored in a place that is closed from the sun and moisture, and also inaccessible to small children. The temperature regime is a maximum of 25 ° C.

Shelf life

Nalidixic acid can be used in the period of 2 years from the date of manufacture of the medicine.

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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Attention!

To simplify the perception of information, this instruction for use of the drug "Nalidixic acid" translated and presented in a special form on the basis of the official instructions for medical use of the drug. Before use read the annotation that came directly to medicines.

Description provided for informational purposes and is not a guide to self-healing. The need for this drug, the purpose of the treatment regimen, methods and dose of the drug is determined solely by the attending physician. Self-medication is dangerous for your health.

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