Maxitrol has a double action - it suppresses signs of inflammation (this is promoted by GCS substance dexamethasone), and also has an antimicrobial effect (it is provided by 2 antibiotics - neomycin with polymyxin B).
Dexamethasone is an artificial SCS with powerful anti-inflammatory properties. Polymyxin B is a cyclic-type lipopeptide capable of passing through the cell walls of gram-negative microbes, as well as destroying the cytoplasmic membrane. In this case, relative to Gram-positive microbes this substance shows less activity.
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside that acts on bacterial cells, inhibiting the synthesis process inside the ribosome, as well as the connection between polypeptides.
Stability of bacteria with respect to polymyxin B develops at the chromosomal level and occurs rarely. A very important element of this process is the modification of the phospholipids entering the cytoplasmic membrane.
Resistance to neomycin develops in several different ways, among which:
- change of ribosomal subunits inside microbial cells;
- violation of the processes of moving neomycin into cells;
- inactivation of enzymes through phosphorylation, adenylation, and acetylation.
Genetic data that contribute to the production of inactivating enzymes can be transported using bacterial plasmids or chromosomes.
Gram-positive aerobes that are sensitive to the action of the drug: Bacillus simplex, wax bacillus, cabbage stick and Bacillus pumilus. In addition, also Corynebacterium accolens and Corynebacterium macginleyi, Corynebacterium bovis with Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum and Corynebacterium propinquum. In addition, it affects the sensitive to methicillin, golden and epidermal staphylococci, as well as Staphylococcus capitis, staphylococcus varvers and Staphylococcus pasteuri. Along with this, the drug acts on streptococcus mutants.
Gram-negative aerobes exposed to drugs: Influenza wand, Klebsiella pneumonia, Moraxella cataralis and Moraxella lacunata, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Conditionally resistant to the action of LS types of bacteria: methicillin-resistant epidermal staphylococcus, and in addition Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus hominis.
Gram-positive aerobes resistant to the effects of drugs: enterococcus fecal, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus mitis and pneumococcus.
Gram-negative aerobes resistant to the drug: Serratia species.
Resistant to Maxitrol anaerobes: propionibacterium acne.
Dexamethasone is a SCS with a moderate impact strength, it perfectly passes inside the eye tissues. Corticosteroids have vasoconstrictive and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, they inhibit the inflammatory reaction together with the manifestation of symptoms in a variety of disorders, but often the disorder itself does not eliminate it.