The drug Mabcampath refers to the anti-cancer drugs of the group of cytostatics, that is, causing the death of cancer cells.
To date, the only official indication for the use of Mabcampat is malignant blood disease - B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (chronic lymphocytic leukemia). The occurrence of this disease causes mutations in the B-lymphocyte genome, resulting in the loss of the ability to produce antibodies and provide immune protection to the body. The response of the organism to this pathology is an intensified synthesis of damaged lymphocytes and their accumulation in the spleen and lymph nodes.
The drug Mabcampat is available in the form of a concentrated solution for intravenous infusions, in bottles with a capacity of 30 ml.
The therapeutic effect of the drug Mabcampat is provided by the active substance alemtuzumab (Alemtuzumab), which is a close to human monoclonal antibody. Alemtuzumab was obtained by gene modification of human immunoglobulin (IgG1) cells by incorporation of rat IgG2 antibody into them.
Once in the human body, the antibodies contained in this preparation are bound to a specific antigen - glycolipid CD52 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol), which is located in the extracellular space and on the outer surfaces of the cell membranes of healthy and affected blood lymphocytes. Due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids, CD52 is able to bind with the antibody alemtuzumab, which leads to the destruction (lysis) of malignant B- and T-lymphocyte cells.
At the same time, the blood cells unaffected by pathology are restored (from 8-12 weeks from the beginning of application of the drug), since the stem cells do not contain the glycolipid-antigen CD52 and Mabkampat does not affect them.
The drug Mabcampat after intravenous administration is distributed in extracellular fluids and blood plasma. Repeated administration of the drug reduces the rate of purification of body fluids - due to peripheral blood loss of cytokine receptors (C 052).
The half-life of the active substance after the administration of the first dose (30 mg) ranges from 2 to 32 hours (average - about 8 hours), after the last dose - an average of 6 days (with individual variants from one day to two weeks).
According to the data of clinical experiments, an increase in the concentration of Mabcampate (alemtuzumab) in the blood serum is accompanied by a significant decrease in the formation of lymphocytes. In this case, cancer-affected lymphocytes (neutralized by the drug) accumulate in the blood, and then are eliminated.
Use Mabkampat during pregnancy
Use Mabkampat during pregnancy and lactation is contraindicated. Data on the use of the drug in the treatment of children there.
Contraindications to the use of this drug are: increased sensitivity to the active substance; anaphylactic reactions (including mouse protein) in the anamnesis; HIV AIDS; systemic infections (rheumatism, systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, idiopathic purpura, autoimmune thyroiditis, etc.) in the active stage, as well as progressive secondary oncological formations.
The use of Mabkampat is not recommended for violations of kidney function and diseases
Liver - with the exception of the cases when the expected benefit of treatment is higher than the potential risk of occurrence of adverse reactions.
Side effects Mabkampat
Among the most frequently manifested side effects of Mabcampath are: headache, malaise, dizziness, fever; skin rash, hives, itching and sweating; loss of sensations of taste or its perversion; dry mouth; stomatitis; inflammation of the conjunctiva; pain in the lumbar region, behind the sternum, in the bones and muscles; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and flatulence; convulsions; bronchitis and bronchospasm.
The use of Mabcampath causes an increase or decrease in blood pressure, disturbances in heart rhythm, sleep disorders, loss of appetite, epigastric pain, dehydration, and weight loss.
Blood tests, which during the application of this drug should be carried out regularly, can show: anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, lymphopenia and other changes in blood counts.
Since Mabcampate has an immunosuppressive effect, side effects can be expressed in the infection of the upper respiratory and urinary tract; in symptoms of fungal infection, herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, etc.
In addition, with a marked decrease in lymphocytes in the blood (lymphopenia), patients may develop life-threatening graft-versus-host syndrome, which is manifested by a fever, a characteristic patchy-papular rash on the ear lobes, neck, palms, and upper chest and back; ulcers and white touch on the oral mucosa; dehydration; a metabolic disorder.
Dosing and administration
Method of application of the drug Mabkampat - intravenous infusions, conducted for two hours (regardless of the prescribed dose). The procedures are carried out in a hospital, under strict medical supervision.
The initial dose of the drug is 3 mg. Then the dosage increases: on the second day - 10 mg, on the third - 30 mg. In the future, the dose is 30 mg per day, which is administered three times a week (every other day). The maximum duration of treatment is 12 weeks.
The use of Mabcampath requires mandatory premedication - 30-60 minutes before each infusion - with the help of steroid, analgesic and antihistamines.
With repeated administration of single doses of Mabcampath to a total volume of 240 mg, fever, hypotension and anemia can develop. A special antidote for such cases is not present: it is necessary to stop use of a preparation and to spend symptomatic treatment.
Interactions with other drugs
Interactions Mabcampat with other drugs to date have not been clarified.
Storage conditions Mabcampat: the drug should be stored in a dark place at a temperature of + 2-8 ° C (freezing is unacceptable). Prepared for an infusion solution should be used no later than 8 hours after preparation (store in the refrigerator).
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To simplify the perception of information, this instruction for use of the drug "Mabkampat" translated and presented in a special form on the basis of the official instructions for medical use of the drug. Before use read the annotation that came directly to medicines.
Description provided for informational purposes and is not a guide to self-healing. The need for this drug, the purpose of the treatment regimen, methods and dose of the drug is determined solely by the attending physician. Self-medication is dangerous for your health.
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