Hyperesthesia of the teeth

Last reviewed by: Aleksey Portnov , medical expert, on 05.10.2018

Hyperesthesia of the teeth is an increased sensitivity to various kinds of irritants. Let's look at the types of hyperesthesia, the causes of the disease, the methods of treatment and prevention.

Hyperesthesia or acute sensitivity is manifested due to the effects of temperature, mechanical and other stimuli. The disease manifests itself in the form of intense, severe pain that occurs when exposed to stimuli. Sometimes unpleasant symptoms appear when brushing your teeth, causing aching pain.

  • Hyperesthesia is a lot of trouble. Despite the fact that outwardly the teeth look absolutely healthy, they react sharply to any stimuli, both physical and mechanical. A sip of cold water or a spoonful of hot soup causes a strong toothache.
  • Most often, patients complain of hyperesthesia of tooth enamel, while hyperesthesia of hard tooth tissues is diagnosed in every second patient of dentistry.

The degree of pain is diverse, the pain can be rapid-passing or acute intense, prolonged, pulsating. Special sensitivity manifests itself to acidic food, sweet, hot and cold, with pain occurring near the gums at the base of the tooth.

Causes of hyperesthesia of teeth

The causes of hyperesthesia of the teeth are diverse. The disease can occur due to damage to the enamel of the teeth, lesions and even due to irregularities in the work of the body. The most common causes of hyperesthesia of the teeth:

  • Damage to the enamel of teeth due to the action of mineral or organic acids.
  • Pregnancy, menopause, hormonal disorders and disruptions in the endocrine system, nervous and psychological diseases.
  • Frequent eating of sour fruits and juices.
  • Negative effects on the body of ionizing radiation.
  • Open dentinal canals due to tooth lesions (carious and non-carious).

Hyperesthesia occurs due to the exposure of dentinal canals or the effect of stimuli on the pulp of the tooth. In this case, pain can occur even during breathing and brushing.

Let's consider the mechanism of the disease. Dentin is a dental tissue that determines its shape and appearance, it is permeated with thin channels, in which nerve cells connected to the pulp of the tooth are located. Dentinal channels are always filled with fluid that moves. The change in the speed of its movement causes painful sensations. If the enamel of the tooth is damaged or weakened, it causes increased sensitivity, constant discomfort and painful sensations.

Hyperesthesia of tooth enamel

Hyperesthesia of tooth enamel is the defeat of a thin tissue that protects the tooth from external injuries. The tooth enamel is very sensitive. The lack of vitamins and minerals, due to improper nutrition, breaks the pH balance and destroys the protective layer of enamel.

  • Excessive use of harmful products: soda, acidic foods and sweet - this is one of the causes of hyperesthesia of tooth enamel.
  • The use of hard toothbrushes and toothpastes with abrasive elements is another cause of the disease.
  • Very often, enamel disease is accompanied by bleeding and atrophy of gum tissues.
  • Non-compliance with the rules of oral hygiene, non-treatment of dental problems and visits to the dentist.
  • Negative influences have also harmful habits that lead to the formation of cracks and break the integrity of the enamel (clenching of teeth, gnashing of teeth, nibbling of nails, etc.).

In the absence of proper treatment, hyperesthesia of the enamel of the teeth can provoke inflammation of the nerve and pulp of the tooth. Because of hypersensitivity, there is swelling of the gums, which indicates an inflammatory process that requires medical treatment.

Hyperesthesia of hard tooth tissues

Hyperesthesia of hard tooth tissues is a common dental disease. Hyperesthesia is classified according to several. There is a generalized and local form of the disease, as well as several degrees of development. Let's take a closer look at the peculiarities of hyperesthesia of hard tooth tissues.

  1. Hyperesthesia for the spread

Painful sensitivity manifests itself in the whole dentition, and in a single tooth. Depending on the degree of spread of the painful sensations, there is a local, that is, a limited form of hyperesthesia and generalized.

  • Local - occurs in one or more teeth at the same time. Very often, the pain is associated with caries, non-carious lesions and other dental diseases of hard tooth tissues. Hypersensitivity may occur due to treatment, removal or sealing of the teeth.
  • Generalized form - pain affects all teeth at the same time. As a rule, this form develops because of exposing the necks of the tooth due to periodontal disease, erosion of the teeth, increased erosion and other diseases.
  1. By origin

I distinguish two types of hyperesthesia, the first is associated, and the second is not associated with the loss of hard tooth tissues. If the increased sensitivity arises from the violation and loss of hard tooth tissues, this is due to the presence of carious cavities, increased erasability of enamel and hard tooth tissues. If the disease is not associated with the loss of hard tooth tissues, the appearance of hypersensitivity provokes periodontal disease, metabolic disorders or gum recession.

  1. Clinical course

This category of disease has three stages. In the first stage, the tooth reacts to temperature stimuli; in the second stage, pain occurs due to temperature and chemical stimuli, and in the third stage, pain sensations appear when exposed to temperature, chemical and tactile stimuli. That is, painful sensations appear even from an easy touch to the teeth.

This classification of hyperesthesia of the teeth allows the dentist to perform differential diagnostics and select the most effective treatment.

Symptoms of hyperesthesia of the teeth

Symptoms of hyperesthesia of the teeth are manifested as a short-term pain in the mouth, in the area of teeth and gums. Patients complain of discomfort after sour, hot, cold and sweet food and drinks. Unpleasant sensations arise for a couple of minutes and subside. But the pain grows with time and becomes intense, pulsating, not passing.

Sometimes even a breath of cold air causes terrible pain in the teeth. Painful sensations in hyperesthesia - this is a constant and the most true symptom of the disease. Sometimes, with hyperesthesia, there are periods of remission, when stimuli do not cause painful sensations, and the intensity of discomfort is significantly reduced. But, after such fading, hyperesthesia of teeth returns with new force, causing severe pain and discomfort.

Diagnosis of hyperesthesia of teeth

Diagnosis of hyperesthesia begins with a visual and instrumental examination at the dentist. The doctor examines the teeth for cracks, chips and other changes. Only after the examination, the dentist can determine the degree of sensitivity of the enamel and hard tooth tissue to various stimuli. In addition to the examination, the dentist conducts a conversation with the patient and learns about when the painful sensations appear. So, if the patient complains of pain after a cold, sour or hot, the dentist may suspect increased sensitivity of the teeth, that is, hyperesthesia.

During the visual inspection, the dentist can see significant changes in the structure of the hard tissues of the tooth, chipped enamel on the front and side teeth and on the chewing surface, that is, on the back teeth. The dentist performs differential diagnostics to determine hyperesthesia. The main task of the doctor, to distinguish the increased sensitivity from the symptoms of acute pulpitis.

If the disease is provoked by damage, then a correction is performed that will help to get rid of the painful symptoms. It is mandatory to treat carious lesions and conduct professional hygiene of the oral cavity.

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Treatment of hyperesthesia of teeth

Treatment of hyperesthesia of teeth is a complex process. Treatment depends on the cause of hypersensitivity and the degree of development of hyperesthesia. To date, in modern dentistry, there are many different methods that can cure the increased sensitivity of tooth enamel and hard tooth tissues. As a rule, therapeutic treatment is used, less often a surgical method is used.

  • In the treatment of hyperesthesia, fluoridation of the teeth helps. The procedure of fluoridation is the imposition on the aching teeth of cotton swabs from fluoride and calcium salts. For complete treatment of sensitivity, 10-15 procedures are sufficient.
  • If the teeth are treated with 2 or 3 degrees of hyperesthesia, modern filling materials are used for the treatment, which are used to cover the enamel.
  • In case of a disease caused by a carious process, the tooth is prepared, the cavity is cleaned of the affected tissue and the seal is inserted.
  • If the disease has arisen because of lowering the gums at the inflammation of the periodontal and opening the cervical area, then surgical treatment is performed. During the operation, the dentist covers the neck of the tooth and raises the gum.
  • With hyperesthesia due to increased abrasion of the teeth, orthodontic treatment is performed. Therapeutic methods in this case are not effective, since correction of the occlusion is required.
  • The generalized form is treated only medically. The patient is prescribed drugs that restore the phosphoric-calcium metabolism. For treatment, multivitamin complexes and calcium preparations of glycerophosphate are used.
  • Sometimes improperly performed tooth filling causes hyperesthesia. Hypersensitivity occurs in patients who have incorrectly put a seal, if the seal is not easily attached to the tooth or there is a small gap between the tooth and the filling. In this case, the remains of food can get to the tooth and cause painful sensations. For treatment, a repeated filling is performed, but before that, remove the old seal and clean the tooth, and if necessary, channels.
  • If the hypersensitivity has arisen after the treatment of caries, this indicates an inflammatory process in the pulp. To do this, the tooth is opened, the channels are cleaned and sealed.
  • Hyperesthesia after bleaching or brushing teeth, indicates a thinned tooth enamel. For treatment, electrophoresis and calcium glycerophosphate solution are used. Also, a more modern method of treatment is used - coating enamel with varnish with fluorides of sodium and calcium.
  • Hypersensitivity can also occur due to wearing braces. In this case, for the treatment of hyperesthesia appoint a course of applications of fluoride and calcium salts or coating the enamel of teeth with varnish fluorides of sodium and potassium.

To treat hyperesthesia use special drugs that contain minerals (calcium and fluoride), special gels, as well as alternative medicine. Let's look at ways to treat hypersensitivity teeth.

Desensitizing pastes

Treatment of this kind is very convenient to conduct at home. To do this, use special toothpastes, which have a therapeutic effect on dental tissues. Pastes that reduce hyperesthesia contain alkalis, which when cleansed and interact with water enter the dentinal tubules, cause their dehydration and reduce sensitivity. Use similar toothpastes necessary treatment courses, 2-3 times a year. Healing Paste:

  • MEXIDOL dent Sensitive is a therapeutic toothpaste designed to prevent and treat hyperesthesia of the teeth, periodontitis and bleeding gums. Pasta eliminates the causes of many dental diseases - microbial flora and oxidative reactions in the cells of the oral cavity. The active substance of toothpaste mexidol is a powerful antihypoxant and an antioxidant. Pasta has antibacterial action and accelerates the regeneration process. Toothpaste increases local immunity, accelerates the healing of purulent wounds and reduces bleeding.
  • Oral-B Sensitive Original - effective toothpaste for the treatment of hyperesthesia caused by increased sensitivity of tooth enamel. The toothpaste consists of a substance that is similar in structure to the tooth enamel - 17% hydroxyapatite.
  • Rembrandt Sensitive - low-level toothpaste with whitening and anticaries effect. The peculiarity of this toothpaste is that it forms a protective film on the teeth, which protects tooth enamel from the action of irritants.

Healing Gels and Foams

Such remedies are designed specifically for the treatment of hyperesthesia of the teeth. Means are used for rinsing or applied to cotton turuns and rubbing their teeth. Medicinal varnishes form a protective film on the teeth, and gels and foams carry out the prevention of inflammatory processes. This kind of remedy can be used to treat the increased sensitivity of tooth enamel in children from one year. The most popular medicinal preparations from this series:

  • Bifluoride 12 is a fluorine-containing varnish with sodium and calcium. After application to the teeth, forms a film on the enamel, which protects against the action of temperature stimuli.
  • Tooth Mousse is a healing gel that reacts with saliva and forms a protective film on the teeth. The drug is applied to the teeth with cotton swabs. Gel refers to professional dental equipment.
  • Remodent is a therapeutic rinse powder. The main indication for the use of the drug is the prevention of carious lesions. Remodent is effective in the treatment of hyperesthesia of the teeth. The composition of the drug includes such elements as: sodium, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, iron.

Electrophoresis (iontophoresis) in the treatment of hyperesthesia of the teeth

Therapeutic method, which involves the use of impulsive or galvanic current together with medicinal substances. Such an effect on the body is used to treat hyperesthesia of the teeth. The basic preparations used at electrophoresis:

  • Calcium gluconate solution - for the treatment of hypersensitivity of teeth in children, apply 5% solution, and for adults 10%. The treatment course should consist of at least 10-12 procedures for 15-20 minutes each.
  • Solution Fluokal - an active substance of the drug sodium fluoride. Before using the solution, the tooth must be dried and protected from ingestion of saliva. On the affected surface of the tooth, apply a cotton swab soaked in a solution and hold for 1-3 minutes.
  • Belak-F - fluoride varnish with analgesic effect. The drug is used to treat and prevent hyperesthesia of teeth and caries. The composition of the drug includes fluoride ions, chloroform, potassium fluoride and other substances that strengthen enamel and hard tooth tissues and reduce their permeability. Belak-F is effective in wedge-shaped defects, non-carious and traumatic lesions of the teeth, which cause hypersensitivity.

Alternatives for the treatment of hypersensitivity teeth

Most often, alternative medicine is used to treat hyperesthesia. Such treatment involves the use of only herbal medicines. Alternative means can be used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of a number of dental diseases. Let's consider the most effective recipes of alternative medicine:

  • To treat any dental problems, especially hyperesthesia, it is recommended to use decoction of the oak bark. Pour boiling water over a spoonful of dried oak bark, cook on a steam bath for 10-15 minutes, cool and strain. The broth should be rinsed 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment should be from 7 to 14 days.
  • If the pain has arisen suddenly, then dilute a couple drops of tea tree oil in a glass of warm water and rinse the oral cavity. To fix the therapeutic effect, the procedure should be carried out 3-4 times a day, preferably after each meal.
  • Pour a glass of boiling water a spoonful of chamomile and thistle. The broth is recommended to persist for 20-30 minutes, then strain and rinse the tooth 2-3 times a day. Therapeutic and preventive course takes from 5 to 10 days.

The treatment of hyperesthesia of the teeth is a long process, which must be carried out systematically. All the above mentioned medicinal products can be used only after consultation and examination with the dentist. The doctor will determine the cause of hypersensitivity of the teeth and select the most effective means. In addition to medicinal products, it is important to maintain a diet, that is, eating foods rich in vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Of particular complexity are the chronic and acute forms of hyperesthesia, in the treatment of which surgical methods of treatment can be used. In especially severe cases, the patient is placed dental crowns or prosthetics of the affected teeth.

Prophylaxis of hyperesthesia of teeth

Prevention of hyperesthesia of the teeth is a complex of therapeutic measures that are aimed at preventing increased sensitivity. The dentist selects effective preventive measures that help keep the teeth beautiful and healthy. As a rule, these are preventive toothpastes, gels, medicinal decoctions and much more. If hyperesthesia is caused by sensitivity to temperature irritants, cold and hot air, then for prevention, the dentist selects the means that seal the dentinal canals and prevent the occurrence of painful sensations.

Let's consider the methods of prevention of hyperesthesia of pruritus, which must be adhered to to preserve the health of the teeth:

  • Observe the rules of oral hygiene. Carry out a systematic cleaning of teeth using toothpastes that do not contain abrasive elements that destroy tooth enamel.
  • Adhere to the correct technique of brushing your teeth. To do this, you need to use a medium-hard toothbrush that will not injure the gums and teeth.
  • Refuse the use of whitening toothpastes, as they contain chemical elements and abrasive particles. Such particles cause damage to the tooth enamel, and wash out the calcium from the teeth.
  • Eat right, eat foods that contain minerals (calcium and phosphorus). Reduce the consumption of sour and sweet foods.
  • Do not forget about systematic preventive visits to the dentist. You need to go to the doctor two or three times a year.

To prevent hyperesthesia, it is recommended to use decoctions of herbs. Especially effective are gargles with inflammation of the gums, which provoke hypersensitivity. Medicinal decoctions suggest a long-term use, to achieve an effective therapeutic effect.

Prognosis of hyperesthesia of teeth

The prognosis of hyperesthesia of teeth depends on the cause of its disease and stage. As a rule, if the patient at the early stages of the disease turned to the dentist and the doctor started to treat the hypersensitivity, then the prognosis is favorable. The most important rule of a favorable prognosis is prevention and rational dental care.

Hyperesthesia of the teeth is an unpleasant disease that can occur at any age. Hyperesthesia or hypersensitivity arises from dental diseases or from damage to the enamel. To prevent the disease, there are many preventative methods that keep your teeth healthy.

It is important to know!

Since filling is one of the final stages of treatment, one must take into account not only the quality of the sealing itself, but also the rationality of carrying out previous manipulations. This is necessary because many of the procedures performed directly affect the consistency and durability of the seal. 

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