Moles, or nevi are available to all. These are benign neoplasms of different shades of brown color. Their color is provided by melanin, a pigment found in melanocytes (skin cells), of which nevi are composed.
They are considered small if they have a diameter of up to 15 mm; average - up to 100mm; large - more than 100mm; giant - occupying significant areas of the skin of the body parts.
Causes of the flat moles
Lentigo - the most common flat birthmarks, formed due to melanocytes. They have an oval or round shape with a diameter of 3-5 mm, smooth or relief edges. The number of birthmarks is proportional to the time spent in the sun (solar lentigo).
Older flat birthmarks appear from the same causes, with the onset of age-related skin changes. Usually, after 45 years, their number and size increase, the color becomes darker. Localization - face, hands, shoulders and neck.
The reason for the appearance of the juvenile (simple) lentigo is not established, but to stay under the sun it has nothing to do. Round or oval dark spots with smoothed or jagged edges occur both in early childhood and in adolescents. They occur on the skin and on the mucous membranes, they are single or scattered.
There are no such birthmarks on babies' babies. They appear later. First, a small flat spot forms on the skin, over time it can increase and rise above the skin layer. Whether the nevus will remain flat depends on the level of the location of the pigment cells. When the melanocytes are located in the epidermis, the mole will be flat. With deeper their location directly in the skin itself - will be convex.
The formation of nevi and their number is affected by heredity. Even the name "mole" says this. They seem to be inherited, sometimes even localized in the same places as the older relatives.
The formation of nevi can be facilitated by radiation and X-ray radiation, which act from time to time on the body. Viral and infectious diseases that leave traces on the skin, insect bites and other injuries can trigger the release of melanocyte groups onto the surface of the skin.
The intermediate portion of the pituitary gland secretes a hormone that stimulates the production of melanocytes, so hormonal bursts can cause nevi. This can explain the appearance and disappearance of moles in adolescents and pregnant women.
Alternative medicine explains the formation of moles by the release of internal energy, accumulating in the focus of inflammation.
Symptoms of the flat moles
If a previously convex birthmark suddenly became flat, it could mean that a convex nevus was ripped off and not noticed, and instead of it a flat patch of dark brown or black appeared. This is an alarming bell, it is necessary to turn to oncodermatologist and soon.
Clinically, the initial stage of melanoma resembles a flat dark nevus of asymmetric shape with uneven edges. These spots can have a diameter of 6mm or more. A characteristic feature of melanoma is a shiny surface, brown or black.
It usually begins to grow noticeably, change color, can become bulky and convex, crack, wet, bleed. If you have these symptoms, you can not delay.
Pathogenesis: Melanoma spreads over the surface of the skin, gradually rising, and inwards, sequentially growing into the layers of the skin and underlying tissues.
This tumor is characterized by rapid metastasis usually in closely located lymph nodes. Often metastasizes into the skin, near the primary tumor, a scattering of brown or black rashes.
Through the blood, metastases enter different organs, but usually metastasis is classical (in the lungs, the liver, the brain and the adrenal glands). Often the metastases are multiple and in the blood and urine tests free melanin is present.
Flat birthmark on the face
Not very often, such nevi are found on the face. These are accumulations of pigment cells in the epidermis without a deep root of any shades of brown with a flat dry surface. On such birthmarks, hairs do not grow. Their size does not exceed 1cm. Their form, size and number do not change over time.
Spots in beige-brown color scheme - lentigo. Their number is greatly increased in some adolescents, in tanning enthusiasts, in almost all elderly people. This is the most common kind of moles, which poses no danger.
On the face are often found flat birthmarks of large or medium size. They belong to melanoma-hazardous birthmarks.
Nevus Ota is a large neoplasm of bluish tinge.
Dubrejl's melanosis is a medium-sized neoplasm of light brown color with irregular outlines, which tends to darken and gradually increase over time.
Most giant moles, occupying large areas of the face, are flat. Such nevi appear in childhood, their size grows with the growth of their "master", their color is also diverse.
You do not have to worry about any of your birthmarks, you can not remove them all, and that's no good. Most do not present any danger to health. But, nevertheless, nevi on the face are constantly in the sun, and not always good from an aesthetic point of view.
Changes in the birthmark on the face is difficult not to notice. You can not remove it at home, you can cause irreparable harm. Even if you need to remove a mild, at first glance, mole from aesthetic considerations, you should always consult a dermatologist, since only a specialist can correctly determine the technique of removing the tumor.
Flat birthmarks become bulging
When the harmless, long familiar, flat birthmark became convex, you should immediately postpone all cases and consult an oncodermatologist. Similarly, it is necessary to act if the flat birthmark grows, as if blurring in different directions, losing its symmetrical shape and compacting. Such activity may be a sign of melanoma.
In this case, every minute is precious. The sooner the treatment begins, the greater the chance of avoiding a mortal danger.
Excess in the skin cells of melanin provokes the appearance of pigment nevi, and its amount determines their color. If a flat black mole is present on the skin for a long time, does not change and there are still such moles, most likely they are safe.
A nevus of black color should cause fear in case of its recent appearance, as well as the blackening of the old neoplasm in whole or in part.
Flat brown moles are located anywhere on the skin or mucous membranes. Insolation to these nevi does not work, they do not change color, the amount also does not increase, on their body usually not much. Usually flat brown birthmarks are slightly darker than freckles.
Blonde and red-haired people with fair skin have melanocytic nevuses of pink color. These are the usual birthmarks, it's just that in people with this phenotype, melanocytes produce not a brown, but a pink-red pigment.
Lentigo - plural flat brown-brown nevuses, their number can grow strongly in children and adolescents (juvenile lentiginosis), and also under the influence of solar radiation at any age, increasing with the years.
In addition to Lentigo, Mongolian and coffee stains are also found. The Mongolian spot is a flat large single spot or a group of brownish-blue asymmetric spots in the lumbar region. They pass by themselves in 12-15 years.
Coffee stain is a flat spot of light coffee color. When there are 1-2 such spots on the body, it is not dangerous. If there are three or more, then there is the possibility of neurofibromatosis. It makes sense to consult a neurologist.
The red flat birthmark is formed from the damaged capillaries of the circulatory system. It looks like a flat or slightly convex tumor of red color with uneven edges.
Two types of superficial capillary moles are classified: hemangioma and vascular malformation.
Hemangioma - a new bright red color that appears on the skin in the first weeks of life, can rise slightly above the surface of the skin. It does not disappear over time. It is usually located in the face and neck area. Never is ill-tempered.
Vascular malformation is a congenital pathology of blood vessels. There are its following varieties: bright port stains, which remain for life, and "stork bite," the result of pressure on the mother's pelvis on the child's skull in the last months of gestation. This spot disappears by itself in infancy.
If the mole is like a small vascular red dot, it's probably senile angioma. They begin to appear after 30 years, and with age they become larger. There are senile angiomas from the dilated vessels located close to the surface of the skin.
A flat birthmark with uneven edges that has been observed for a long time in an unchanged form is most likely not a danger, especially if there are other similar formations on the body.
But if earlier the borders of the birthmark were smooth and changed recently, or it is a newly born mole, it is worth to appear to the oncodermatologist.
A flat birthmark of corporal color, most likely - an ordinary safe birthmark of unsaturated color.
Reducing the pigmentation of the brown mole to flesh-colored is also an occasion to pay her attention to the doctor.
Complications and consequences
Are flat birthmarks dangerous? These neoplasms are safe in themselves. But they should not be ignored at all. Flat nevuses should be small in size, of uniform color and have a round symmetrical shape.
Watching for birthmarks with a mirror in your hands is desirable regularly, especially if there are many. Sometimes the birthmark degenerates into melanoma - a malignant neoplasm. The mechanisms that trigger this process are different. The main cause is sunburn. Even with sun protection, it is best to avoid direct sunlight on the skin. Place the moles should be avoided with a massage, do not direct them to a strong stream of the shower, avoid mechanical damage to clothing. Dermatologists believe that during the period of puberty and pregnancy, the risk of nevus degeneration is much higher.
Multiple occurrence of new birthmarks on the skin is also an alarming factor.
According to observations in most cases (about 80%), malignant neoplasms of the skin are formed not from existing moles, but from normal skin cells. In this case, at the beginning of the process, you can notice a new unusual birthmark.
When the old birthmark is reborn, its appearance begins to change. And any change should cause alertness. Darkening of the nevus, its itching, tingling, cracks, bleeding, the appearance of asymmetry or a dark rim around it - all these are the reasons for resorting to an oncodermatologist.
What if I tear off a flat birthmark? In general, the complete or partial ripening of the mole can end quite harmlessly. Instead of the old nevus, a new one will appear, also benign. The damaged one will safely close and never bother.
When injuring a mole, it is necessary to stop bleeding (with the help of 3% hydrogen peroxide), disinfect the wound and apply a dry sterile bandage. Tear off the whole nevi is desirable to place in a vessel with saline solution to make an analysis for the malignancy of cells. The probability of changing the cellular structure of a flat birthmark as a result of traumatization increases several fold.
Having processed wound immediately it is necessary to apply to the oncodermatologist. After the examination, the doctor will give recommendations on the treatment of the wound and the need to remove the remaining parts of the mole.
After removing the mole or its remains, you need to follow the recommendations of the surgeon, without trying to speed up the healing process.
You can not remove the remaining parts of the ruptured mole alone, cauterize them with celandine, you do not need to glue the wound with adhesive plaster and make lotions.
If any circumstances prevent you from visiting the doctor, observe an injured nevus or injury site. If pathological changes such as itching, rapid growth, cracking, bleeding, discoloration occur, immediately show to a specialist.
Diagnostics of the flat moles
It is impossible to determine independently what is concealed behind a normal birthmark.
The dermatological rule ABCD helps the doctor in determining the danger of tumors, where A is the asymmetry of the birthmark, B is the degree of unevenness of its border, C is the uniformity of the color, and D is the diameter of at least 6 mm. However, this rule is not absolute, subjective-incorrect evaluation of the set of characteristics is possible.
If there is a suspicion of the presence of melanoma, tests are done: histopathological microscopy of the smear taken from the surface of the mole. Biopsy - material for analysis is taken from a skin area near the birthmark, but not from the birthmark itself, because To injure this neoplasm even for the sake of establishing a diagnosis is dangerous.
In modern oncology, instrumental diagnostics of melanoma and other malignant skin formations is used. These are dermatoscopy, infrared spectroscopy, confocal laser microscopy, high-frequency ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, fluorescent diagnostics.
The most promising non-traumatic diagnostics is epiluminescent dermatoscopy, which allows the doctor to examine the pigmented spot in the incident light with a 10-fold increase.
It is possible to carry out this diagnostic procedure using a computer to which a dermatoscope is attached. The obtained series of digital images of the nevus are stored and analyzed using diagnostic algorithms based on the comparative characteristics of dermatoscopy of benign and malignant skin lesions. Such diagnostics does not injure the birthmark and allows to avoid unjustified surgical interventions.
Based on the long-term study of the morphology and dynamics of formation of pigmented skin tumors, as well as the establishment of their dermatoscopic features, diagnostic algorithms were constructed to compare melanocytic and non-melanocytic nevi. Thus, differential diagnostics for early detection of skin melanoma was created according to its inherent structural features, which are revealed in dermatoscopy.
Can I remove flat birthmarks? This question bothers many people. Flat birthmarks can be removed. But is it worth it? If the mole has begun to change, is damaged, regularly injured by clothing, then it is better to remove it. If it is benign and does not interfere, then there is no need to clean it.
You can get rid of a birthmark for aesthetic reasons, but be sure to check after a dermatologist. Neoplasm should be examined, a diagnosis and a way of removal established. All these procedures are desirable to be carried out in a medical institution of an oncological profile. A histopathological examination of the removed neoplasm should be performed to ensure that there are no signs of degeneration.
To remove birthmarks is contraindicated in acute infectious and inflammatory processes, exacerbation of chronic diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, autoimmune, mental and oncological diseases, pregnancy.
Removing flat moles
There are several methods for removing benign nevi.
During cryodestruction, the formation of new growths under the action of liquid nitrogen at low temperatures is destroyed by cold and subsequent death. This method is used to remove flat moles. Its disadvantage is the possibility of injury to healthy tissue and incomplete destruction of the birthmark (the procedure will have to be repeated). After cryodestruction, burns, scars and scars may remain, a long period of healing, sometimes about six months.
Unlike the previous method, the removal of flat moles with a laser has significant advantages. During the procedure, there is no pain, risk of infection, and healthy tissue around the mole is not injured, as the removal parameters are strictly observed. After laser removal methods, there is no scar left, so they are recommended for removing nevuses on the face and exposed parts of the body. With the help of the laser, you can remove birthmarks that are located in hard-to-reach areas of the body.
The procedure of laser evaporation consists in the action on the birthmark of the laser beam, layer by layer evaporating the liquid component from the cells of its tissue.
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to conduct a histopathological study, from a distant tumor there is nothing left.
The method of cutting flat moles with a laser knife leaves the possibility of analyzing the tissues of a distant mole, but there is a risk of thermal skin burn.
The laser knife cuts the layered pigmented skin to a layer where there is not a single melanocyte.
After removal, the wound from the mole is treated with an antiseptic and covered with a sterile bandage. It is protected from sunlight and moisture. A few days later, a crust is formed, falling off in a couple of weeks.
Removal of flat moles with a swirlington (radio wave knife), developed and tested in the US, has the following advantages: quick and painless operation; removal of moles that are in hard-to-reach areas of the body; rapid skin regeneration.
This method can be used to excise not only safe, but also some malignant nevuses.
With this method, a contactless removal of the tumor tissue with a sargitron takes place, with simultaneous stopping of bleeding and disinfection, there are no postoperative scars. Under the destructive effect of the radio wave knife, only nevus tissues are found, and the healthy skin around it is not injured. The operation usually lasts up to 0.5 hours, its duration depends on the number and size of the tumors being removed.
In addition to the above contraindications, removal of nevuses with a radio knife is not carried out if the patient has a pacemaker.
Large melanomoplastic moles are surgically removed. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, the nevus is removed with a scalpel along with a small patch of adjacent skin. After the operation, there remains a scar that heals for several weeks and requires care.
After removing the moles, it is recommended: three times a day to treat the wound with an antiseptic; refrain from long exposure to the sun; not to visit solariums, swimming pools, baths, saunas; urgently consult a doctor, injuring the place of removal or finding a seal in the area of the removed nevus, a discoloration of the skin.
How to remove flat birthmarks at home?
At home removing moles is very dangerous. It is strictly forbidden to try to get rid of large or markedly changing nevi. This can cause irreparable harm to health. Only the doctor after the examination can give recommendations on the removal of the mole.
Now many different natural remedies are offered for elimination of skin imperfections - warts and moles. They are sold without a medical prescription, but as a result of their use you can lose health and even life.
So, drugs that can remove skin defects.
On the Internet the Stefalin ointment spreads to get rid of moles and warts. It is positioned as a 100% natural remedy without chemical additives, consisting of "a special inflorescence of grasses and roots harvested on high-mountain slopes in different places." It removes, according to its distributors, any nevi, warts and papillomas, including melanomopods.
It is not so much the effectiveness of this ointment as the safety that causes doubt. It is not sold in pharmacies, because it is not licensed, therefore, has not passed the necessary control tests.
In pharmacies, drugs are sold, which the alternative rumor attributes to the ability to remove all kinds of small skin defects, including moles. But these funds, first of all, are addressed to medical workers, and not to the average citizen for self-treatment.
Solkoderm solution is used externally to eliminate benign superficial skin defects, such as warts, actinokeratosis, seborrheic keratosis, genital warts and non-vestal nevus (after checking for good quality). The instructions for using the drug indicate that this solution should be applied by a doctor or under his supervision. It is not recommended to use Solkoderm independently.
In pharmacies sell different preparations based on celandine, for example, mountain celandine - alcohol concentrate from celandine for lubricating warts and papillomas, with the addition of gentian, alternating, rhododendron golden and goose paw. About birthmarks in the instruction, nothing is said, but self-medication lovers usually do not stop it.
Even more severe preparation Superchistotel, which has nothing to do with herbs. It is a mixture of alkalis. Sold in a small bottle with an applicator to apply to the skin of the drug. Its components cause the death of skin cells as a result of an alkaline burn. Skin cells die from necrosis, the new formation darkens, withers and disappears. There may be a scar, and in particular, there are no references to the removal of moles in the official instruction for the drug.
The above and similar remedies are unlikely to help get rid of moles, but can cause significant damage to health. Compared with these drugs, alternative products based on natural ingredients are more sparing. However, it should be borne in mind that no alternative means is recognized by the official medicine as effective.
Radically to deal with moles even with alternative means is dangerous. The following recipes may be suitable for the reduction of freckles or very light small flat moles. At home, pure and white skin was treated with herbs, as well as other means that were used in the household.
The safest of them can be considered:
fresh juice celandine - they apply a neoplasm three times a day (can be with Vaseline - an even more gentle effect and convenient to apply);
apple cider vinegar - use one drop per day per birthmark, the duration of the procedure is 5 days;
pencil - active substance (silver nitrate) has a disinfecting, necrotizing effect, smears the tumor every 10 days for a month;
juice of garlic and lemon drip by turns on the nevus for about half a minute every 2 weeks;
You can wipe the birthmark with castor oil, dandelion juice or pineapple juice 2 times a day (whitening effect);
honey and linseed oil mix and compress the nevus for 2 or 3 minutes;
garlic paste is applied to the birthmark, it is sealed with a plaster for no more than 4 hours (the skin around the birthmark is lubricated with petroleum jelly), you can repeat it after 3 or 4 days;
acetic essence - to drip on a nevus from a pipette 1 drop per day for a month (the skin around a birthmark should be smeared with petroleum jelly).
And the safest method is conspiracy:
on the bread spike - cut off the bread spike and cut off the disgusted nevus by the cut, bury the spikelets into the earth with a cut upward, as soon as it rotates - the mole will disappear;
on apples - a mature beautiful apple cut in half and rub one half of the other over the nevus, fold the halves into an entire apple, bind and bury it in the ground when the fruit rotates - the mole will disappear;
for potatoes - potatoes are cut in half, one half immediately buried in the ground, the other - rub the mole and bury it near the first, respectively, the mole will disappear when the potato halves rot.
The consequences of removing moles
Removing the nevus at home can lead to the most negative consequences. If we assume that we can safely get rid of it, we can, after some time, face a deadly danger - melanoma. Her early stages are often confused with the usual flat birthmark. Therefore, before removing the nevus in any way, it is necessary to consult an oncodermatologist, who will conduct its full diagnosis.
Prevention of injuries to moles is the absence of clothing and footwear that exert a pressing, rubbing effect on neoplasms. In order not to accidentally disrupt the nevus, you need to cut your nails short and cut your nails, do not wear tight clothes and shoes.
When there is no desire to deny yourself long, well-groomed nails, tight skirts and jeans, belts, stylish and elegant shoes, you need to worry about your safety and consult with a specialist about eliminating nevuses located in places of possible trauma. In this way, many significant troubles can be prevented.
Remove nevuses for cosmetic purposes best at the time when the hormonal background is stable (in early childhood or in adulthood). For this procedure is more suitable autumn or winter season, when solar radiation is the least intense.
Birthmark is not difficult to accidentally injure, nails, close clothing, washcloth or razor. Not always such a case leads to sad consequences, it is not necessary to believe rumors and a variety of eerie stories. Trauma nevus simply can lead to banal infection.
And yet a benign nevus can turn into a malignant one as a result of a trauma. In case of accidental damage to the birthmark, you should consult the doctor without delay. Even if a malignant birthmark has been damaged, timely treatment will have better results.
In recent years, doctors around the world have begun to notice that the number of skin cancer patients is constantly growing. In addition, this disease is increasingly diagnosed not only in the elderly, but also in young people.