Birthmarks are absolutely at all: just some people have more, and others - and quite a few. Nothing strange in the appearance of such pigment spots. The mole grows slowly, in proportion to the growth of the body, without causing discomfort and unpleasant sensations. But if the growth of the birthmark has sharply accelerated, it has changed its color, or began to remind of itself by pricking or pain - this is already an excuse to worry.
Why is a mole growing and what to do? About moles are known a lot and nothing is known: this opinion was expressed by one of the domestic dermatologists. Indeed, around the notorious spot there are many beliefs and even superstitions. Grandparents are absolutely sure: you can not categorically touch your birthmarks. Surgeons also insist: the earlier to remove a birthmark, the better. Who is right?
We hope that our article will help you to get answers to the most common questions regarding this topic.
Causes of the growth of a birthmark
As a rule, with the growth of the person grows and birthmarks on his body. Moreover, their number increases.
The increase in the size of the birthmark is proportional to the size of the body considered to be the norm. The number of moles grows according to the presence of favorable factors:
infectious diseases of the skin, inflammatory elements on the skin surface;
hormonal changes, both physiological and pathological (for example, the period of onset of puberty, the period of gestation of the baby, menopause, etc.);
excessive ultraviolet irradiation;
regular mechanical damage to the skin and birthmarks (clothing, razor, accessories, etc.).
The growth of a mole is considered to be relatively safe when the stain is enlarged to 2 mm per year. If the size increases dramatically or too quickly, then one can suspect the onset of a pathological process. In addition to the dimensions, similar processes are accompanied by condensation of formation, color change, sometimes there are sensations of itching or tingling, bleeding or peeling.
To date, the pathogenesis of moles has not been definitively determined. Only theoretically, there are a number of possible exogenous and internal causes that stimulate the birthmark to appear and grow.
Many scientists do not deny the genetically determined appearance of moles. In addition, the level of production of melanin - a pigmentary substance produced by melanocytes - is controlled by melanostimulating hormone. Violation of this control can occur in diseases of the central nervous system or liver, with abnormalities in the function of the ovaries, adrenals and thyroid gland.
However, the main part of moles grows as a result of excessive UV radiation and failure of antioxidant skin protection. For example, ultraviolet light directly stimulates the production of melanin by melanocyte cells. In this case, the more intense the radiation and the longer the exposure to UV, the more melanin is produced. If the irradiation takes place against a background of weak antioxidant protection of the skin, the growth of the mole is almost guaranteed.
In addition, these factors contribute to defending the skin:
a decrease in the synthesis of glucocorticoids;
inflammatory diseases of the skin;
suppression of the synthesis of hyaluronic acid;
frequent or incorrect peeling procedures;
laser and photo-provoking procedures;
natural aging of the skin;
injuries, skin burns;
hormonal disorders and shifts;
influence of some medicines (oral contraceptives, chemotherapy drugs, etc.);
violations of the liver.
Symptoms of the growth of a birthmark
Moles are never the same. They can be different in color (from beige to dark brown), in convexity (flat, convex, hanging), in location and shape.
The growth of a mole within 2 mm per year without changing the color and in the absence of unpleasant sensations can be considered the norm. The first signs of pathological growth of the birthmark, which need to pay special attention, usually the following:
The appearance of asymmetry.
Normally, the birth is symmetrical. If the shape of the spot does not correspond to this sign, it is better to consult a doctor.
Borders and edges.
Normally, the birthmark is clearly delineated, not blurred, without torn edges.
Color education in the norm is always uniform and homogeneous. Pathology can include blackening, redness of the birthmark, the appearance in its structure of points, veins, etc.
The diameter of a birthmark.
Significant in diameter spots are always more prone to degeneration. Particularly dangerous are the structures with intensive growth.
Development of a birthmark in dynamics.
With age, moles on the skin can, as they appear, and disappear. And this will not always be considered a sign of the disease. What should alert:
rapid growth in the size or number of moles;
sensation of itching, tingling, or pain in the mole;
bleeding, the appearance of cracks.
The most common issues associated with the growth of a birthmark
The child has birthmarks on his body. This is normal?
Sometimes a child can be born with already existing birthmarks. Most often this happens in children with fair skin or in premature babies. There is nothing wrong with this: more than that, it is believed that congenital nevi are less likely to degenerate into a cancerous tumor than those that appeared in adulthood.
If the child's births occur with the child with age, then you just have to watch them and observe some precautionary rules to avoid complications. Most moles are genetically conditioned, and you should not be afraid of them. Well, if periodically such a child will be examined by a doctor-dermatologist.
I have dark moles and even a few red. Recently noticed that the red birthmark is growing. Is it dangerous?
The red speck is most often not a mole, but a hemangioma - a cluster of blood vessels. Usually such formations do not touch at first, but observe their growth in dynamics. The fact is that sometimes hemangiomas can even disappear on their own.
In any case, with a growing red mole, it is better to see a surgeon or dermatologist.
During pregnancy, many moles appeared, and one mole grows and itches. Is it worth worrying about this?
Indeed, in pregnant women very often there is an increased growth of moles and the appearance of new ones. This is due to cardinal hormonal changes inside the body, because the amount of certain hormones increases in thousands (!) Times. The situation can be further aggravated if the woman has problems with the thyroid gland.
The growth of a mole in a pregnant woman is not always a disease. But if the formation itches, or there are other pathological changes about which we wrote above, then the doctor's consultation should not only be mandatory, but also urgent.
What if the hanging mole on the leg grows?
The growth of a hanging mole is no different from the growth of any other birthmark. If the increase is insignificant, and there are no other signs of rebirth, then one should not panic. Otherwise, the doctor's intervention is mandatory.
Recently noticed that a black birthmark grows on the body. In this case all the other birthmarks are lighter. What could it be?
A black mole carries a greater amount of pigment, and is therefore considered more dangerous in terms of cancer degeneration. The holder of such education should carefully monitor and record any slightest modification of the speck. And it's even better if the doctor does this.
Constantly growing new birthmarks. Is this the norm?
As we have already said, the growth of a mole may be associated with many causes. Therefore, the appearance of new pigmented formations is quite understandable and is considered a variant of the norm. In some people, the number of moles on the body is determined by thousands, and they are quite healthy. Another question is that a person with a large number of birthmarks is more likely to develop cancerous tumors. For this reason, such people are encouraged to visit the dermatologist regularly for diagnosis.
If the convex mole grows, but its color does not change - is it worth it to panic?
If the growth of the birthmark is intense, exceeding 2 mm per year, then panic is really worth it. More precisely, do not panic, but consult a doctor for advice and diagnosis. In case the increase is small, and there are no other negative signs, then the reason for panic is most likely absent. For more accurate information, you should still see the doctor.
A flat birthmark grows in diameter: can I remove a flat birthmark? And whether it is necessary to do this?
A flat birthmark is removed in the same way as others, for example, convex formations. If the speck is troubling, then it is undoubtedly desirable to get rid of it. And the sooner this is done, the better.
Never had many birthmarks on my body. But I heard that most birthmarks grow during pregnancy. Does this happen to all women?
This occurs in the vast majority of women, depending on their genetic predisposition. That is, some may have several additional formations, while others may have several dozen. And the first and second case is a variant of the norm.
Complications and consequences
The main complication of the birthmark is considered to be its degeneration, or malignancy. But after all, birthmarks are far from being born. More often nevuses with a diameter of more than 20 mm degenerate into cancer tumors. The percentage of malignancy is about 5 to 15%.
Especially at risk are birthmarks located in the face area, as well as people with a large number of pigmented lesions on the body (more than 2 dozens).
Diagnostics of the growth of a birthmark
How is the diagnosis of mole growth?
First of all, the doctor will examine the disturbing birthmark and draw certain conclusions: whether education differs from other similar pigmented spots, whether there are signs of malignant degeneration.
The next step is an instrumental diagnosis, the most informative representative of which is dermatoscopy.
Dermatoscopy is used to visualize structural changes in the skin. The procedure is carried out using a dermatoscope consisting of a magnifying glass, a light emitter, a transparent plate and a special gel-like substance that is applied to the skin at the points of contact with the device. This reflects the light from the rough surface of the skin. The dermatoscope allows distinguishing benign moles from malignant cancerous tumors. This procedure is a good alternative to a skin biopsy, which is the removal of a tissue element from a suspicious nevus.
Analyzes are carried out after direct removal of the birthmark. The mole is sent for histological analysis, which can confirm or refute suspicions of malignancy.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with cancerous tumors, melanomas, papillomas, hemangiomas.
What if the mole grows? If you notice a gradually growing birthmark in your body, then you should follow the following recommendations:
pay attention to the symmetry of the neoplasm;
make sure the smoothening of the boundaries of the spot;
observe the color change;
periodically monitor the growth of the birthmark in millimeters, accurately recording the indicators;
Having the above observations, one should visit a doctor.
What kind of doctor should I contact if my birthmark grows? You can contact a dermatologist, an oncologist, a surgeon: all these specialists can help with the problem and stop the birth of a birthmark.
Can I remove a growing mole?
The removal of growing moles can be carried out in different ways, more or less effective. If there is a question about whether to delete the birthmark, or not, then the answer of specialists is unambiguous: of course, delete.
We list the main methods of disposal, which are practiced in most medical institutions.
The method of cauterization with liquid nitrogen is not the most effective method, because in most cases only the protruding surface of the formation is removed, and the tissues located deeper remain.
The method of cryodestruction is the freezing of a mole, similar to cauterization. After cryodestruction, there is also a risk of recurrence.
The method of electrocoagulation is the use of electric current in combination with local anesthesia. Before the advent of the laser technique, the latter method was considered to be the most effective.
Operative treatment - removal of pigmentary growth with the help of a scalpel. Applies to large or deep moles that can not be removed in any other way. The method is traumatic, but effective. At the intervention site, there is a small scar.
The laser method is currently considered to be the most acceptable for the qualitative removal of moles. The penetration depth of the laser beam is determined by the doctor: it is easy to control, so that the formation has been completely removed. At the same time, healthy tissues are practically not affected, and on the spot of the birthmark there remains a small trace, as from a burn, which eventually becomes almost invisible.
Advantages of laser removal:
the method is absolutely bloodless;
after removal, scar tissue is not formed;
do not damage healthy nearby tissues;
the risk of complications is extremely minimal;
operation is rapid, within 10-15 minutes;
removal can be carried out in any area of the body.
Cons of laser procedure:
you can not remove large moles.
Which of the methods to choose, the doctor decides. However, the patient's opinion should also be taken into account. Consideration should be made of the size of the birthmark, its condition, the condition of the patient as a whole, the depth of growth of the mole, as well as some other individual characteristics.
If the birthmark re-grows after removal?
Sometimes the mole grows again, at the same place. This can happen with incorrect and incomplete removal of the tumor. That is why when choosing a method of removing a mole, it is necessary to clarify with the doctor whether there is a risk of recurrence. If there is such a risk, then it makes sense to choose another method, up to an operational intervention.
In addition to the correct selection of the method of removal, it is important and competent to select a specialist who will conduct the procedure. It is inadmissible to remove birthmarks in beauty parlors, people who do not have qualifications and even medical education. You should not use peelings, photodestruction, laser skin resurfacing to get rid of a growing mole. All these procedures are aimed only at superficial impact, which sooner or later only aggravates the situation with birthmarks.
Will the medicine help if the birthmark grows?
Some doctors, with the growth of a benign mole, prescribe medications: basically, they are vitamin preparations that contain substances important for the body (vitamins, amino acids, etc.). The essence of their appointment is that often the mass appearance and growth of moles can be triggered by a deficiency in a person of certain substances. The use of such medications is, in most cases, justified. But it should be noted that already formed formations after taking the drug will not disappear anywhere. The treatment will only help prevent the growth and increase in the number of pigment spots.
AEV is a combination of vitamins A and E in one preparation. AEV take up to one and a half months, 1 capsule a day with food.
Vitamin C is a vitally important vitamin for the body. Take it at 0,05-1 g per day.
Methionine is an indispensable amino acid, which is necessary, first of all, for the normalization of liver function. Methionine is administered orally, approximately 1 g up to 4 times a day for half an hour before meals. Treatment should be continued until 1 month, or by short 10-day courses.
Riboflavin is a vitamin remedy, regulator of oxidation and reduction processes. Tablets are taken for one and a half months, to 0,005-0,01 g to 3 times a day.
Skinoren - an antipigment cream, suppressing the growth of abnormal melanocytes. Use as an external agent, lightly rubbing into the area of the pigment spot twice a day.
Folic acid is a vitamin substance that belongs to the vitamins of group B. It actively participates in metabolic processes, as well as in the production of amino acids. The drug is used in an amount of 20 to 50 mg per day. During pregnancy, the dosage of the medicine is determined by the doctor.
Alternative treatment and growth of a birthmark
Treatment with herbs and other alternatives is very popular: drugs prepared in an alternative way are usually available and have few side effects. However, is it possible to use such means with active growth of moles?
Speaking frankly, at the risk of degeneration of the birthmark any delay can be serious consequences. Therefore, doctors clearly do not recommend risking, and immediately remove the tumor.
Only in extremely rare cases, when the birth is small, shallow and 100% benign, it is permissible to use alternative drugs, but only after consulting a doctor.
Fresh celandine juice is applied to the mole in the morning and evening, until the formation disappears on its own.
Cut the raw potatoes and rub the spot with a clean slice, after which the potatoes are discarded.
Razirayut sliver of garlic, pour it with vinegar and knead the dough with the addition of flour. They put a lozenge from such a test on the birthmark, fix it with a plaster and do not take off for 2-3 days. If after the first procedure the effect is not, then it can be repeated.
Apply the freshly cut leaves of iris under the bandage.
Apply several times a day grated flowers of wild rose.
Drip on the birthmark of a drop of vinegar essence, once a day.
With alternative ways to destroy moles you need to be extremely cautious. It is better if the treatment is carried out under the supervision of a doctor.
Homeopathy with a growing mole
Homeopathic treatment of birthmarks is not very common, as there are not so many drugs that can help in this matter. One of the representatives of such means of homeopathy is Acidum nitrikum - nitric acid, which shows activity against erosive, ulcerative skin lesions, cracks, warts, rashes and benign formations.
The purpose of the drug is individually. The most commonly used scheme of homeopathic treatment: up to 10 drops of the drug twice a day before meals.
To avoid concern about the growth of a birthmark and increase the number of birthmarks, it is advisable to heed these tips.
Carefully observe the condition of the "old" moles, record any changes in color, shape, structure, etc. Any suspicion should be the reason for contacting a doctor.
Tan properly: do not stay under the sunlight for too long, avoid exposure to the sun from 10-00 to 16-00. If possible, wear a closed type of clothing in the active sun phase, be sure to use a hat (for example, panama). Do not neglect sunscreens with a high protective degree.
Try not to wear clothes with tight straps, elastic bands and straps that could injure existing moles.
Be careful while taking a shower or bath. Discard the hard wads that hurt and irritate the skin. Especially be careful during shaving, so as not to damage the protruding moles.
Try to treat any diseases, including infectious, viral, as well as diseases of internal organs and endocrine system in time. During pregnancy, follow the hormonal background and regularly consult a doctor.
The prognosis of the intensely growing pigmentation on the skin depends on the detection time and the degree of progression of the degeneration. With timely access to the doctor, most moles can be removed before the development of a dangerous stage.
Deeply located birthmarks at the stage of malignant degeneration can be cured operatively in the absence of spreading into the lymphatic system, as well as into other tissues and organs.
Benign education can be observed without taking drastic measures to remove it. The main thing is to visit a doctor regularly, who will evaluate the growth of a birthmark, and at the slightest suspicion will prescribe the necessary treatment. If the birthmark grows, then there is no need to panic. But also ignore this circumstance, too, should not: in the case of timely application for medical help, the forecast can be considered favorable.
Last update: 01.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Why should you know how dangerous and non-dangerous changes in moles look like ? Because birthmarks (melanocytic nevi) are found in most people, moles are of several types and can vary, and some of them increase the risk of developing this type of skin cancer
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