A dangerous disease that occurs in adults and children is scarlet fever. Consider the features of its treatment with antibiotics, the types of drugs and their effectiveness.
Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease that manifests itself as a small-point rash, febrile condition, intoxication, and angina. Infection occurs by airborne and by contact. Pathogen - group A streptococcus. This disorder occupies one of the leading places in the frequency of occurrence in children. Certain strains of streptococci can lead to serious rheumatoid complications and lesions of connective tissue.
The main distinguishing features of the disease:
Acute damage to the tonsils and skin small-celled rashes of generalized nature, which after a couple of days after infection are replaced by severe ecdysis.
Infection often occurs during the cold season of October-April, most of all it affects children 5-13 years old. The disease begins suddenly, with various inflammatory reactions.
The main danger of this pathology for humans is the production of specific toxins by streptococci. They are capable of destroying blood cells, epithelium and mucous membranes. Toxins are powerful allergens, which can change the patient's immunological status, provoking various autoimmune processes. Against this background, lytic enzymes are produced that destroy the tissues of the human body, including muscle fibers and hyaluronic cartilages. This leads to various violations from the cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever can reduce the severity of the painful symptoms and the risk of complications. Antibacterial agents are shown to both children and adults. Without such therapy, the streptococcal pathogen is contagious to others. Drugs are prescribed by a doctor, but only after a thorough diagnosis of the patient's condition. It is dangerous to treat scarlet fever alone or to take antibiotics, as it threatens with serious complications.
Indications of the antibiotics for scarlet fever
All antibacterial drugs have certain indications for use. The causative agent of the disease and the level of its sensitivity to certain antibacterial substances play an important role in the choice of medicines. Scarlet fever occurs because of streptococcal infection. For its treatment demonstrations to use such antibiotics:
Penicillins are preparations of the first choice. They are effective for infection of any severity, form and appearance.
Macrolides are drugs of the second group, which are prescribed for intolerance to penicillins or allergic reactions to them.
Cephalosporins and lincosamides - they are used extremely rarely, that is, with intolerance of the two above-mentioned groups.
Medications are prescribed after examination of the patient and the establishment of a final diagnosis.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever are used from the first days of the disease. The form of the drug is selected individually for each patient. If it's children, then you should give the advantage of syrups, resorption tablets and capsules for dissolution in water. In order for antibacterial therapy to be effective, it is recommended to adhere to such rules:
Suspensions and tablets are used for light and moderate forms of the disease. If the disorder is severe or with complications, it is better to use injections, preferably in a hospital setting.
The use of antibiotics should not exceed 10 days. If the course of therapy is not fully completed, then it will not remove the streptococcal infection from the body and transfer the disease into a chronic form. Prolonged use of antibiotics is also not recommended. This is associated with a risk of damage to the microflora of the body.
Any antibacterial agent can be used only as directed by a doctor. Self-treatment of scarlet fever is dangerous risk of complications.
To date, the pharmaceutical market has many medicines for the treatment of scarlet fever and other infectious diseases. The names of the drugs, in most cases, are based on the active substances that make up their composition. The use of antibiotics must be taken seriously and carefully. Before the start of therapy, the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to antibacterial drugs should be established.
Streptococcus, which causes scarlet fever, is most effectively killed by the penicillin group of antibiotics, so it is better to start treatment with them. If the infection is severe or the penicillins are not effective, I prescribe macrolides. In case of allergic reactions to the two groups mentioned above, the doctor prescribes cephalosporins.
The main groups of antibiotics for scarlet fever:
Are active against a wide range of harmful microorganisms. They are used in the first place, regardless of the type and severity of the disease. Medicines of this group do not have toxic properties and do not have a side effect on the body.
Combined antibacterial agent. Contains several active components: amoxicillin (penicillin) and clavulanic acid (inhibitor of beta-lactamase). It is active against streptococci, staphylococci and other gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Well absorbed and rapidly spreads throughout the body, penetrating all tissues and fluids.
Indications for use: acute infectious diseases, sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, zaglugal abscess, otitis media, scarlet fever, urinary tract infections, bone and joint damage, chancroid. Prevention of purulent-septic complications after surgery on the organs of the small pelvis, heart, bile ducts, abdominal cavity. The drug is used for the therapy of mixed infections, in orthopedic practice and maxillofacial surgery.
Tablets are taken before meals without chewing and drinking with sufficient water. Dosage depends on the severity of the disease, the age of the patient and the characteristics of his body. The course of treatment is 5-14 days. For children younger than 6 years, the drug is prescribed in the form of a syrup. For patients from 6 to 12 years, 40 mg / kg per day in 3 divided doses, for children weighing more than 40 kg and for adults, 250 + 125 mg every 8 hours, that is 3 times a day.
Side effects, as a rule, are of a temporary nature and slight degree of severity. Most often, patients face nausea and vomiting, epigastric pain, stool disorders, flatulence, gastritis, stomatitis. Also, various allergic reactions, headaches and dizziness, sleep disturbances and other are possible.
Contraindications: cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, intolerance of the drug components, pregnancy and lactation. In case of an overdose, there is insomnia, dizziness, increased agitation, convulsions. For treatment symptomatic therapy, hemodialysis is indicated.
Antibiotic of a wide spectrum of action. It destroys bacteria, is active against a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The drug has several forms of release: tablets for oral use, syrup in vials, a dry substance for the preparation of suspension and drops, powder for injection.
Indications for use: bacterial infections caused by sensitive microorganisms, upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, empyema, lung abscesses, bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues, urinary tract infections, cystitis, urethritis, sepsis, pyelonephritis. Infections of the pelvic organs, syphilis, gonorrhea, osteomyelitis, septicemia, postoperative infections.
Dosage is set individually for each patient. For children younger than 1 year, the drug is prescribed in the form of drops with a dosage of 0.75-1.25 ml per day. For babies up to 12 years, a syrup or a suspension of 5-10 ml 3 times a day is prescribed. Children over 12 years and adults, it is recommended to take pills, 1 capsule 3 times a day. The course of treatment is 5-10 days.
Side effects: digestive disorders, allergic reactions, dizziness and headaches. The drug is contraindicated for intolerance to its components, severe violations of liver function, hives, pregnancy.
Antimicrobial agent, similar in its effect to benzylpenicillin. Poorly soluble, therefore, creates penicillin depot in the body for a long period of time. Malotoxic and does not accumulate in the body. The drug is produced in vials of 300,000 units and 600,000 units.
Indications for use: infectious diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation. The drug is administered intramuscularly 1-2 times a week, at a dosage prescribed by a doctor. For patients of childhood, the dose is calculated at 5000-10 000 units / kg once a month or 20 000 units / kg 2 times a month.
Side effects are manifested in the form of allergic reactions. Bicillin is contraindicated in bronchial asthma, hives and other allergic diseases, hay fever and with increased sensitivity to benzylpenicillin.
Bactericidal antibiotic from the group of semisynthetic penicillins. Has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action, is active against gram-positive and gram-negative coca and rods. Acid-resistant, quickly and completely absorbed in the intestines. The drug is available in the form of tablets for oral administration, enteric-coated capsules, oral solution, suspension and dry substance for injection.
Indications for use: inflammation of the bronchi and lungs, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, pyelonephritis, urethritis, gonorrhea and other infections caused by microorganisms that are sensitive to the drug.
The form of the preparation, its dosage and the duration of therapy, are determined by the attending physician, individually for each patient. For children from 2 to 5 years, 25 mg 3 times a day, 5 to 10 years for 125 mg, for adults, 500 mg 3 times a day. If the drug is prescribed for patients younger than 2 years, the dosage is calculated at 20 mg / kg body weight for three doses.
Side effects: various allergic reactions, inflammation of the nasal mucosa, the outer shell of the eye, pain in the joints, fever. In rare cases, there is a development of superinfection.
Contraindications: individual intolerance to penicillins, infectious mononucleosis. With special care, the drug is prescribed during pregnancy with a tendency to allergic reactions.
Drugs of this group are prescribed for intolerance or allergy to penicillins.
The broad-spectrum antibiotic with the active substance is azithromycin. It is active against gram-positive cocci and some anaerobic microorganisms. It has several forms of release: oral tablets 125, 250 and 500 mg, a powder for the preparation of a suspension of 20 and 30 ml.
Indications for use: upper and lower respiratory tract infections and ENT organs, tonsillitis, sinusitis, scarlet fever, otitis media, pneumonia, bronchitis, skin and soft tissue infections, erysipelas, Lyme disease, secondarily infected dermatoses.
The method of administration and dosage depend on the form of the preparation. The medication is taken 1 time per day, one hour before a meal or two after. For adults, 500 mg for 3 days, for children 10 mg / kg 1 time per day for 3 days.
Side effects: nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and flatulence, increased hepatic enzymes, skin allergic reactions, stool disorders. When an overdose occurs, vomiting and nausea, temporary loss of hearing, diarrhea. Treatment is symptomatic, gastric lavage is possible.
Contraindications: increased sensitivity to macrolides, severe violations of the function of baking and kidneys. With special care, the medicine is prescribed for allergic reactions in the anamnesis.
Antibacterial agent, a semi-synthetic derivative of erythromycin. Due to the change in the molecule of the substance, the bioavailability improves and the stability of the preparation increases under pH conditions, and its antibacterial activity expands. Produced in the form of tablets for oral administration of 250 and 500 mg.
Indications for use: scarlet fever, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, folliculitis, erysipelas, streptoderma, bronchitis, pneumonia, infections of the dental-jaw system. Effective in the complex treatment of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, with local infections caused by Mycobacterium (fortuitum, chelonae, kensasii).
Usage: 250 mg twice a day for children over 12 years and adults, treatment course 5-14 days. Tablets can be taken regardless of food intake, squeezed with a sufficient amount of liquid.
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, epigastric pain, taste changes, headaches and dizziness, sleep disturbance, hallucinations, tinnitus. Also, there may be various allergic reactions, tachycardia, an increase in the activity of hepatic transaminases.
Contraindications: age of patients under 12 years old, allergic reactions to Clarithromycin and its components. In case of an overdose, there is an increase in adverse reactions. Treatment is symptomatic, gastric lavage is possible. Hemodialysis is ineffective.
Antibiotic of a wide spectrum of action, possesses bactericidal activity. Affects gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacteria, some anaerobic microorganisms. Produced in the form of tablets, capsules and syrup.
Indications for use: angina, sinusitis, scarlet fever, tonsillitis, otitis media, atypical pneumonia, bronchitis, erysipelas, secondary infected dermatoses, infectious lesions of the urogenital tract, cervicitis, Lyme disease.
Before using the drug, it is necessary to determine the sensitivity of the pathogenic microflora to it. The medicine should be taken one hour before a meal or two after. Adults appoint 500 mg on the first day of therapy and 250 mg from 2 to 5 days. The dosage for children is calculated at 10 mg / kg. The duration of treatment is determined by the attending physician.
Side effects: nausea and vomiting, flatulence, transient increase in hepatic enzymes, skin allergic reactions.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, severe impairment of kidney and liver function, pregnancy and lactation. With special care, the medicine is prescribed for allergic reactions in the anamnesis.
Lincosamides and cephalosporins
Medications of these groups are used for intolerance of penicillins and macrolides.
Antimicrobial agent from the group of lincosimides. It has bacteriostatic properties against a wide range of harmful microorganisms. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative infectious agents. Resistance to the drug develops very slowly. Produced in the form of capsules of 250 mg of the active ingredient.
Indications for use: infectious diseases of bones and joints, otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, scarlet fever, erysipelas, infected purulent wounds, furunculosis, mastitis and other diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation.
The method of application and dosage is established by the attending physician. For children from 6 to 14 years and weighing more than 25 kg, appoint 30 mg / kg. The daily dosage should be divided into several doses at equal intervals of time. Adult patients are prescribed 500 mg three times a day. The course of treatment is 1-2 weeks, with a severe course of the disease can be extended to 3 weeks.
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, pain in the epigastric region, increased activity of hepatic enzymes, esophagitis, neutropenia, skin allergic reactions, muscle weakness, headaches and dizziness.
Contraindications: individual intolerance to the components of the drug, the age of patients under 6 years. Cases of overdose are not fixed.
Tablet antibiotic, 1st generation cephalosporin for oral administration. Has bactericidal activity against a wide range of harmful microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative.
Indications for use: infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin, soft tissues, bones, urinary tract infections. The drug is not used when hypersensitivity to its components and beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as during pregnancy and lactation.
The drug is prescribed for patients with a body weight of more than 40 kg in a dosage of 100-200 mg per day in 1-2 divided doses. The course of treatment is 7-14 days. The side effects are manifested in the form of allergic reactions, dysbacteriosis, candidiasis, dizziness and headaches.
Semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic of the 2nd generation. It has bactericidal properties against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. It has a harmful effect on strains that are insensitive to ampicillin and amoxicillin. It is available in powder form for the preparation of injection solutions.
Indications for use: various diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, ENT diseases, lesions of the genitourinary system, bones, joints, soft tissues, abdominal cavity organs, gastrointestinal tract, as well as for the prevention of infectious complications during surgical interventions.
Dosing and Administration: for newborns, 30-60 mg / kg of body weight is prescribed every 6-8 hours. For children from 1 year and older, 30-100 mg / kg per day every 6-8 hours, for older patients, 750 mg. In case of overdose, there may be signs of increased CNS excitation, convulsions. For treatment, hemodialysis is performed.
Side effects are easy and reversible. Most often, patients face various abnormalities from the digestive tract, leukopenia, a decrease in the level of hemoglobin, headaches and dizziness. Possible temporary hearing loss and skin allergic reactions.
Contraindications: individual intolerance of the components of the drug, hypersensitivity to the antibiotics of the penicillin or cephalosporin series.
A drug with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. By its action, the drug is similar to penicillins, since it inhibits the synthesis of cell walls of bacteria. It is available in powder form for the preparation of injection solutions.
Indications for use: pneumonia, scarlet fever, peritonitis, lung abscess, osteomyelitis, wound and burn infections, lung abscess, infectious diseases of the skin and soft tissues, osteoarticular apparatus, urinary tract.
Method of administration: the drug is administered intramuscularly and intravenously, i.e., jet or drip. The daily dose for adults is 100-400 mg, for children over 1 month 20-50 mg / kg body weight divided into 3-4 admission.
Side effects: various allergic reactions, with intramuscular injection, phlebitis is possible. The drug is not used if its components are intolerant, during pregnancy, for the therapy of premature infants and patients younger than 1 month.
Overdose is temporary and manifests itself by such symptoms: dizziness and headaches, paresthesia, convulsions, vomiting, tachycardia. To eliminate adverse reactions, hemodialysis is indicated.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever can be taken only for medical purposes, strictly observing the conditions of the instructions. During treatment should give up alcohol. Categorically it is contraindicated to disrupt the dosage or duration of administration of medicines.
Antibiotic agent from the group of cephalosporins of the second generation. It has a wide spectrum of action, bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity (destroys the walls of bacterial cells). Contains an active component - cefuroxime, which acetylates membrane-bound transpeptidases, disrupting the crosslinking of peptidoglycans, which is responsible for the strength and rigidity of the cell walls. Resistant to the action of beta-lactamases, is active against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria, anaerobic microorganisms.
The preparation has two forms of release: tablets for oral administration and granules for the preparation of a suspension. The composition of 1 tablet includes 125 or 250 mg of cefuroxime ascetil. After ingestion, the drug is rapidly absorbed from the digestive tract, hydrolysed to the intestinal mucosa, and enters the bloodstream. The medicine is quickly absorbed when taken with food at the same time. The maximum concentration in blood plasma is reached in 2-3 hours after application. It is excreted unchanged in the urine.
Indications for use: infectious diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation. The medicine is prescribed for infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung abscesses, ENT infections, scarlet fever, postoperative infections and with damage to the genitourinary system. Medication is used for skin and soft tissue infections, sepsis, peritonitis, meningitis, gonorrhea.
How to use: tablets and syrup are recommended during or after meals. The duration of therapy is determined by the attending physician, individually for each patient. On average, the course of treatment lasts 5-7 days. Adults are prescribed 250 mg twice a day, for children 3-6 months 40-60 mg for two doses per day, for patients over 6 months 60-120 mg twice a day and for children 2-12 years of age 125 mg 2 times a day.
Side effects: various disorders of the digestive system (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, hepatitis), leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, dizziness and headaches, temporary hearing impairment and convulsions, skin allergic reactions, candidiasis, dysbiosis. Overdose is manifested by similar symptoms, there is no specific antidote, therefore symptomatic therapy is performed.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, allergy to penicillins, bleeding and lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, age of patients younger than 3 months, pregnancy and lactation.
Zinnat suppresses the development of useful intestinal microflora and reduces the synthesis of vitamin K. If the drug is used with drugs that reduce blood clotting, the risk of bleeding increases. Tablets enhance the effect of anticoagulants.
The effectiveness of drugs is determined not only by their composition, but also by the pharmacological effects of the active components. Pharmacodynamics of antibiotics, prescribed for scarlet fever, allows you to learn more about the properties of the substances that make up their composition.
Flemoxin Solutab is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Contains active substance amoxicillin trihydrate, which refers to semisynthetic penicillins. It has bactericidal properties. It is active against most gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Summed - an antibacterial agent of a wide spectrum of action. The peculiarity of this medicine is that it creates high concentrations in the focus of inflammation, having a bactericidal effect. The active substance is azithromycin, Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacteria, some anaerobic microorganisms, are sensitive to it.
Lincosamides and cephalosporins
Cefazolin - has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial action. It is active against streptococci and other gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Does not affect the strains of the protein, rickettsia, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
After the administration or administration of any drug, certain chemical and biological processes begin in the body. Pharmacokinetics indicates the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drug. Consider this with the example of antibiotics used to treat scarlet fever in adults and children:
Flemoxin Solutab, after oral administration, is rapidly absorbed into the digestive tract and completely absorbed. Eating does not affect the level of absorption of active ingredients. The maximum concentration in the blood plasma is observed after 60-120 minutes after oral administration. The active substance is acid-fast. Accumulation of antibiotic occurs in bone tissue, mucous membranes, sputum. Metabolizes to inactive metabolites, 90% is excreted by the kidneys. If the liver function is disturbed, the process of excretion can be changed.
Summed - its active substance azithromycin, quickly absorbed from the digestive tract. The maximum concentration in the blood plasma is reached after 2.5-3 hours after administration, bioavailability of 37%. The active component penetrates into all liquids, organs and tissues, accumulates in the lysosomes. The concentration of the drug in the foci of infection is much higher than in healthy tissues. The half-life is 14-20 hours, which allows you to take the medicine once a day.
Lincosamides and cephalosporins
Cefazolinum with intramuscular injection is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body. The maximum concentration in the blood plasma is observed after 1 hour and remains for 8-12 hours. The active components are excreted by the kidneys unchanged. Half-life is about 2 hours.
Use of the antibiotics for scarlet fever during pregnancy
Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease that occurs in both adults and children. In some cases, the disease is diagnosed in expectant mothers. For its treatment, antibiotic drugs of different groups are used. Their use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is allowed only when the potential benefit to the mother is higher than the possible side risks to the fetus. Drug therapy is performed according to strict medical indications and control.
Antibiotic drugs, like any other drugs, have certain rules of use. Contraindications for use are based on individual intolerance of active components. Many antibiotics are contraindicated in allergic reactions to drugs of the penicillin series. With special care, drugs are prescribed for patients with severe impairment of kidney and liver function, during pregnancy and lactation, for patients of childhood.
Side effects of the antibiotics for scarlet fever
Failure to comply with medical recommendations when using any medication causes adverse reactions. Side effects of antibiotics are most often manifested by such symptoms:
Disorders from the digestive tract: vomiting, nausea, pain in the epigastrium, increased flatulence, stool disorders.
Skin allergic reactions, dermatitis.
Violations of the picture of blood.
Headaches and dizziness.
Disturbance of sleep and wakefulness.
Increased activity of hepatic enzymes.
To eliminate side symptoms, you must stop using the drug or reduce its dosage and seek medical help. In most cases, symptomatic therapy, gastric lavage, hemodialysis is performed.
Dosing and administration
Depending on the age of the patient, the characteristics of his body and the severity of the flow of scarlet fever, the doctor selects the appropriate medicinal product and gives recommendations on its use. The way of application and dose depends on the form of release of the drug.
During therapy, it is necessary to observe the time of taking the drug, that is, to take the medicine at regular intervals. Also, attention should be paid to the dependence of absorption and food intake. Some tablets and suspensions are better to drink a few hours before or after eating, others on the contrary, eat while eating.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever in children
Scarlet fever is most often diagnosed in pediatric patients. Therapy begins with a thorough differential diagnosis. This is due to the fact that to combat the pathogen requires antibacterial and antimicrobial agents.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever in children are necessary for:
Reducing the risk of complications.
Reduction of painful symptoms of the disorder.
Reducing the infectiousness of the patient in relation to others.
Without the right kind of medicine, the disease can lead to serious complications. The risk of their development is associated with the toxins that secrete streptococcus. They cause symptoms of general intoxication of the body and provoke pathological changes in internal organs.
In most cases, treatment is carried out at home with the isolation of the child from other household members. To combat scarlet fever, such drugs can be prescribed:
Bacteriostatic agent with high bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-positive microorganisms, bacteria. The bactericidal effect is based on the blocking action of the active ingredient, bactrim, on the metabolism of bacteria. Another active substance - sulfamethoxazole, destroys the biosynthesis of harmful microorganisms. The drug is effective against streptococci, staphylococcus, typhoid, protea, pneumococcus, intestinal and pseudomonas aeruginosa, mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Indications for use: infections of the respiratory tract, scarlet fever, cystitis, chronic pyelonephritis, lung abscess, pneumonia, pyelitis, gonococcal urethritis. Infections of the gastrointestinal tract, various surgical infections, empyema of the pleura, uncomplicated gonorrhea.
Method of administration: for patients over 12 years of age, 4 tablets per day or 8 measuring spoons of syrup are prescribed. The maximum daily dosage should not exceed 6 tablets. For patients under 12 years of age, Biseptolum is administered in the form of a syrup. Its daily dosage is 15 ml 2 times a day. In severe infections, the dose can be increased by ½.
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, various allergic reactions, pathological symptoms from the kidneys, a decrease in the level of leukocytes in the blood, a sharp decrease in granulocytes in the blood.
Contraindications: individual intolerance of components, damage to the hematopoietic system, kidney and liver diseases, pregnancy. The medicine is not assigned to newborns and premature babies. With special care are used for the therapy of patients of early age, therefore during treatment it is necessary to control the picture of blood.
Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal medicament, a derivative of 5-nitroimidazole. It is active against most gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, including streptococci.
Indications for use: protozoal infections, streptococcal diseases, bacterial endocarditis, sepsis, pneumonia, abscess and empyema of the lungs, infections of the abdominal cavity, damage to the bones and joints, infections of the central nervous system, meningitis, cerebral abscess, pseudomembranous colitis. Suitable for the prevention of postoperative complications.
The method of use depends on the form of release of the drug. Metronidazole is available as a powder for the preparation of solution, suspension, tablets and solution for infusion. Children are given a suspension or tablets for oral administration. Dosage depends on the weight of the child and the severity of the disease, so it is prescribed by the doctor, individually for each patient.
Side effects: various disorders of the digestive system (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, stomatitis), dizziness, impaired coordination of movements, increased weakness, drowsiness, convulsions, skin allergic reactions.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to active substances of the drug, organic lesions of the central nervous system, leukopenia, hepatic insufficiency, pregnancy.
Antimicrobial tablets used in the complex treatment of scarlet fever in children. Contain active ingredient metronidazole, which is active against protozoa, aerobes and anaerobes. After oral administration, it is rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract, reaching a maximum concentration after 1.5-3 hours. Evenly distributed throughout the body, gets into bile, saliva and other fluids.
Indications for use: trichomoniasis, giardiasis, infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation, surgical infections. Tablets take 125 mg 3 times a day. The duration of treatment depends on the effectiveness of therapy in the first days of taking the medication.
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth, headaches, dizziness, a decrease in the number of blood cells, various allergic reactions, a change in the color of urine.
Contraindications: the age of patients younger than 6 years, individual intolerance to the components of the drug, the first trimester of pregnancy and lactation.
In case of an overdose, there may be attacks of nausea and vomiting, convulsions, ataxia. The treatment is aimed at removing the medication from the body, hemodialysis is possible.
Antimicrobial drug from the group of macrolides. The active substance is azithromycin (a subgroup of azalides). Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, with pronounced bactericidal properties. The mechanism of its action is based on interaction with the ribosomal 50S-subunit of bacteria and inhibition of RNA-dependent protein synthesis. Gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms are sensitive to the action of the drug. The preparation has several forms of release: tablets with an enteric coating, powder lyophilized to prepare a solution for parenteral use.
Indications for use: infectious diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation. Infectious lesions of the lower respiratory tract (angina, sinusitis, bronchitis, otitis), scarlet fever, folliculitis, infected dermatitis, urethritis, prostatitis, diphtheria, intestinal infectious lesions.
The method of administration and dosage are determined by the attending physician. For patients younger than 16 years, the dosage and duration of therapy depend on body weight and sensitivity to the drug. In case of an overdose, there may be attacks of nausea and vomiting, stool disorders, and hearing loss. There is no specific antidote, therefore symptomatic therapy is indicated.
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, flatulence, increased palpitations, disturbed sleep and wakefulness, headaches and dizziness, increased irritability, skin allergic reactions, photosensitivity. If infusions are used, an inflammatory reaction may occur at the injection site.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the drug components, kidney and liver diseases, bradycardia, arrhythmia, heart failure, electrolyte balance disorders, pregnancy and lactation.
Antimicrobial agent is similar to penicillin in the spectrum of its action. The drug is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Destructively affects the trachoma, riktcii, brucella, syphilis. Therapeutic doses provide bacteriostatic action. The body quickly develops resistance to the antibiotic, so combined therapy is shown in combination with other medicines. Erythromycin is available in the form of tablets with an enteric coating and ointments.
Indications for use: pneumonia, pneumo pleura, bronchiectatic disease and other lung lesions, septic conditions, erysipelas, peritonitis, otitis, scarlet fever, mastitis. It penetrates all tissues and body fluids.
Method of application: for patients under 14 years of age, 20-40 mg / kg per day are administered, divided into 4 divided doses. For patients older than 14 years and adults for 250 mg every 4-6 hours. It is recommended to take the medicine 1-1.5 hours before meals. Before its use, it is necessary to determine the sensitivity of the microflora that caused the disease.
Side effects: nausea, company, stool disorders. With prolonged use of the device, there may be abnormalities in liver function, skin allergic reactions. Duration of drug use causes the development of resistance to it by harmful microorganisms.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity, severe dysfunction of the liver, allergic reactions in the anamnesis.
Antibacterial drug, which in the spectrum of its action is similar to fluoroquinolones, but has a higher activity. Effective with internal and parenteral administration. When taken orally, it is quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Penetrates into all tissues and biological fluids. It is excreted in urine, about 40% unchanged.
Indications for use: infectious diseases of the respiratory tract, skin, soft tissues, joints and bones, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract. Effective in scarlet fever, purulent-inflammatory processes, sepsis and in the treatment of infections in cancer patients.
Dosage and treatment is determined by the attending physician, focusing on the age, weight and course of the disease. As a rule, the drug is taken at 125 mg twice a day, the duration of therapy is not more than 5-15 days.
Side effects: Ciprofloxacin is well tolerated, but in rare cases, allergic reactions may occur, swelling of the face and vocal cords, headaches and dizziness, sleep disorders, changes in blood picture, taste and smell disorders, vomiting, diarrhea.
Contraindications: intolerance to quinolones, epilepsy, pregnancy. With special care is prescribed for the treatment of children under 15 years of age, with violations of kidney function.
Combined antimicrobial agent. Contains two active components: ampicillin and oxacillin. It acts on gram-positive (streptococcus, pneumococcus, staphylococcus) and gram-negative microorganisms. It is active against enzymes that destroy penicillins. Well penetrates into the blood and all biological fluids.
Indications for use: infections of the respiratory tract and lungs, sore throat, inflammation of the bile duct, inflammation of the gall bladder and renal pelvis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, skin infections and infected wounds. Can be used for severe sepsis, endocarditis, postoperative purulent complications.
The method of use depends on the form of release of the drug. Ampiox is available for intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration. For children younger than 1 year, 100-200 mg / kg is prescribed, for babies from 1-7 years, 100 mg / kg per day, for patients from 7-14 years at 50 mg / kg per day, for children over 14 years of age is shown adult dosage. The course of treatment is from 5-7 days, but not more than 3 weeks.
Side effects: soreness at the injection site and allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Desensitizing agents are used for treatment. The main contraindication is a toxic-allergic reaction to penicillin in the anamnesis.
A medicinal preparation whose mechanism of action is based on a violation of the reproduction of bacteria. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, which are resistant to cephalosporins, penicillins and aminoglycosides.
Indications for use: treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-sensitive microorganisms. Effective in mixed infections caused by two or more pathogens. It is prescribed for infectious lesions of the respiratory and urinary tracts, with infections of the ENT organs, skin and soft tissues, bones, joints. The medicine is used for typhoid fever, peritonitis, cholecystitis, systemic infections.
The method of application and dosage is determined individually for each patient. It depends on the age of the patient, his body weight, the general condition of the body and the type of pathogen. For complex treatment of scarlet fever in children, appoint 250-500 mg every 12 hours. The drug can be taken regardless of food, but better on an empty stomach. The duration of therapy should not exceed 7 days.
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, stool disorders, dizziness and headaches, insomnia, seizures, allergic reactions. In rare cases, there is an increase in the level of hepatic transaminases, a change in hematological parameters, gynecomastia, secondary renal failure. The medicine is not used when its components are intolerant. With special care is prescribed for the treatment of children younger than 16 years.
Semisynthetic antibacterial agent, 1 generation cephalosporin. It is active against staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, intestinal and hemophilic rods, proteus, treponema, salmonella. Does not affect the mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterococci and enterobaker. It is available in the form of enteric-coated capsules, oral tablets and powder for the preparation of a suspension.
Indications for use: bronchitis, pneumonia, lung abscess, pleurisy, cystitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, phlegmon, pyoderma, furunculosis, arthritis, osteomyelitis and other diseases caused by drug-susceptible pathogens.
Usage: for children, 25-50 mg / kg is prescribed, but if the disease is caused by a gram-negative flora, the dosage is increased to 100 mg per day. For patients up to a year, 2.5 ml of suspension and 250 mg of tablets 3-4 times a day, for children from 1-3 years of 5 ml of suspension and 250 mg of capsules, for patients over 3 years of 7.5 ml of suspension. The daily dosage should be divided into two doses at an interval of 12 hours. Duration of treatment is 2-5 days.
Side effects: diarrhea, indigestion, headaches and dizziness, leukopenia, allergic reactions. It is not used for intolerance to cephalosporins and penicillins because of the risk of cross-allergy.
The use of antibiotics for the treatment of children must necessarily be agreed with the attending physician. The success of the recovery is affected by the mechanism of action of the selected drug, its dosage and the duration of therapy.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever in adults
Scarlet fever in adults is rare. The disease is very contagious, it is caused by the toxin streptococcus erythrogenic exotoxin. When bacteria start to release their toxins, a pink-red rash appears on the patient's body. Allocate such forms of the disease:
Pharyngeal - infection through the mucous membrane of the oropharynx.
Extrapharyngeal - infection through the wound surface.
Both varieties can have both typical and atypical character. In the first case, there is a slight or medium-heavy course. In the second, the disease takes a septic, toxic or combined variant. In this case, the atypical form may have subclinical and rudimentary flow.
Symptoms of scarlet fever in adults appear 1-4 days after infection. There are acute inflammatory reactions: red throat, fever, fever, chills, skin rash. After 6-8 days the rash descends, and the painful sensations subside. But this is possible only with proper therapy.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever in adults are aimed at combating harmful microorganisms. Consider the most effective drugs:
The broad-spectrum antibiotic is active against gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. The active substance is amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid. The active component destroys the integrity of the bacterial membrane, causing the death of the bacterium.
Indications for use: infectious diseases of different localization and severity, caused by a microflora that is sensitive to the drug. Most often, tablets are prescribed for infectious lesions of the skin and soft tissues, organs of the genitourinary system, respiratory tract. The drug is effective in sepsis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, various postoperative infections.
How to use: tablets are taken orally, swallowing or dissolving in a glass of water. To reduce the risk of side effects and achieve maximum therapeutic effect, the drug is recommended to be taken at regular intervals. The course of treatment should not exceed 3-10 days. Recommended dosage for scarlet fever is 500 mg 3 times a day.
Side effects: pain and discomfort in the gastrointestinal tract, discoloration of tooth enamel, nausea and vomiting, stool disorders, dryness of the oral mucosa, changes in taste sensations. There may also be headaches and dizziness, an increase in the level of liver enzymes, skin allergic reactions.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, various violations of the liver, digestive tract diseases with chronic diarrhea and vomiting. The drug is not used for children weighing less than 13 kg. With special care is prescribed for patients with bronchial asthma and impaired renal function.
Overdose manifests more pronounced adverse reactions. There is no specific antidote, therefore, symptomatic therapy, reception of enterosorbents and gastric lavage are indicated for treatment.
A long-acting benzylpenicillin drug. It has bactericidal action against streptococci, treponemia and non-penicillinase-producing staphylococci. It is available as a dry substance in vials, complete with a special solvent.
Indications for use: acute tonsillitis, scarlet fever, erysipelas, prevention of infectious complications after removal of tonsils and teeth, syphilis, exacerbation of rheumatism. In scarlet fever in patients over 12 years of age, appoint 0.6 million units every three days. Possible dosage of 1.2 million units every 2-4 weeks or 1-2 injections of 1.2 million units once every 7 days.
Side effects: various allergic reactions, a sharp increase in body temperature, joint pain, stomatitis, glossitis. With prolonged use of the drug, superinfection may develop.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to antibiotics of the penicillin series. With special care, the drug is prescribed for intolerance to cephalosporins and a tendency to allergic reactions.
Antibiotic agent from the group of natural penicillins. It has several forms of release: tablets, syrup, solution for oral administration and granules for solution preparation. Bacteriolytic is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, cocci, spirochetes, and corynebacteria. Does not affect mycobacterium tuberculosis, viruses, amoebae and rickettsia, acid-fast.
Indications for admission: various bacterial infections, bronchitis, scarlet fever, pneumonia, otitis media, gonorrhea, syphilis, purulent skin and soft tissue injuries and other diseases caused by microorganisms that are sensitive to the drug.
Dosage depends on the form of release of the drug and the severity of the disease. With an average infection, adults and children over 10 years of age are prescribed 3 million ED 3 times a day. In severe disease, the dosage can be increased to 6-9 million units per day. The duration of therapy is determined by the attending physician.
Side effects: various allergic reactions, pain in the joints, fever, irritation of the mucous membrane of the mouth and pharynx. The drug is contraindicated for intolerance to penicillins, with stomatitis and pharyngitis.
Antibiotic, the product of the life of a mold. Has a wide range of bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. It destroys streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, meningococci, anthrax, some strains of pathogenic staphylococci and protea.
Indications for use: streptococcal sepsis, extensive and deeply localized infectious processes, injuries and burns. Used for erysipelas, scarlet fever, gonorrhea, syphilis, sycosis, furunculosis, inflammatory lesions of the ears and eyes.
The method of application, like the dosage, depends on the form of release of the drug. Penicillin can be used subcutaneously, intravenously, sublingually, orally, for inhalation, rinsing and even rinsing.
Side effects: various allergic reactions, pharyngitis, asthmatic bronchitis, stomatitis, attacks of nausea and vomiting, stool disorders. Treatment is symptomatic. In case of an overdose, adverse reactions are more severe.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to penicillin, hives, hay fever, bronchial asthma, various allergic diseases.
Antimicrobial agent, in chemical structure and mechanism of action similar to lincomycin, but 10 times more effective. It penetrates well into body fluids and tissues. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative infectious agents. It has several forms of release: capsules and tablets for oral administration, ampoules and 15% solution, syrup and flavored granules for the preparation of syrup.
It is used for infectious diseases of the respiratory tract, skin, bones, joints, soft tissues, abdominal organs. The dose and duration of treatment depend on the severity of the disease and the sensitivity of the causative agent of the infection to the drug, so they are appointed by the doctor. The drug is contraindicated for intolerance of its components. Side effects and symptoms of overdose manifest nausea, vomiting, various allergic reactions. Treatment is symptomatic.
How much to drink antibiotics with scarlet fever?
The duration of treatment of acute infectious diseases, as a rule, does not exceed 10-14 days. How much to drink antibiotics in scarlet fever is determined only by the attending physician, individually for each patient. In most cases, noticeable relief comes on day 2-3 of therapy. If this does not happen, the doctor reviews the treatment plan and appoints new drugs.
Very often antibiotic treatment is combined with the use of antihistamines. This allows you to lower the risk of allergic reactions and reduces swelling of the oropharynx. After a course of antibiotics, the patient is prescribed probiotics to restore normal microflora.
Non-compliance with the prescribed dosage by the doctor with the use of antibiotics, causes various pathological reactions. Overdose can manifest itself with such symptoms:
Nausea, vomiting, stool disorders.
Temporary hearing loss.
Headaches and dizziness.
If there are violations of water-electrolyte balance or dehydration, the patient is assigned enterosorbents and conducts hydration measures. In most cases, symptomatic treatment and gastric lavage help.
Interactions with other drugs
Very often, scarlet fever is combined therapy. The patient is assigned several medications of different groups simultaneously, for effective control of the infection. Consider the most popular means and the possibility of their interaction with other drugs:
Flemoxin Soluteb leads to inhibition of tubular excretion of the active substance when used with phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone. This causes an increase in the active component in the blood plasma and an increase in the half-life. When taken with bacteriostatic antibacterial agents, the bactericidal activity of Flemoxin is neutralized.
Summed increases the effect of alkaloids, tetracyclines and chloramphenicol increase synergism, while lincosamides lower it. Food, ethanol and antacids slow down the absorption process. When used with indirect anticoagulants, excretion slows down and the concentration of the active component in the blood plasma increases. Summed is incompatible with heparin.
Lincosamides and cephalosporins
The renal clearance of cefazolin is significantly reduced when taken with probenecid. There may also be false-positive results of tests for sugar in the urine. The drug is not recommended to be used simultaneously with strong diuretics and anticoagulants.
Since antibiotics with scarlet fever come in different forms of release, it is necessary to observe their storage conditions. Drugs should be kept out of the reach of children, protected from sunlight and moisture. The recommended storage temperature is 15-25 ° C. Failure to comply with these recommendations leads to premature deterioration of the medicament and the loss of its medicinal properties.
All drugs have a certain shelf life. Antibacterial drugs used to eliminate acute infectious disease - scarlet fever, can be used within 24-36 months. Shelf life is indicated on the medicine package.
Antibiotics for intravenous and intramuscular injection, after their dilution, can be stored no more than 6-12 hours, and only in the refrigerator. At the end of the expiry date, the drugs must be disposed of. Use of overdue drugs is contraindicated and dangerous.
Treatment of scarlet fever without antibiotics
Many patients wonder whether it is possible to treat scarlet fever without antibiotics. Yes, this disease can be cured without antibacterial drugs. Pathological symptoms will be resolved on their own within 7-10 days, without any treatment. For this period of time, the immune system independently copes with beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.
The need for antibiotics is explained by the risk of complications, which can lead to both disability and death. Infection can cause such effects: otitis media, meningitis, phlegmon neck, arthritis, rheumatism, glomerulonephritis, various neurological disorders, heart disease, renal failure of varying severity. Medications make the course of the disease easier, reduce the pathological symptoms. According to medical statistics, patients who refused to take medication in 60% of cases have different complications. When taking antibiotics, the risk of complications is 2-3%.
In addition to antibacterial treatment for scarlet fever, it is necessary to use solutions for rinsing and treating the throat: Lugol, Furacilin, zelenka or soda solution. To control the eruptions, you can use Streptocide, Furacilin, Dioxydin, chamomile, calendula or sage infusion. In the acute period of the disease, it is very important to maintain the immune system. To do this, it is recommended to eat foods rich in vitamin C and B, proteins and other useful substances. Food should be warm in a liquid or semi-liquid state.
Alternative to traditional treatment are alternative methods. To alleviate the painful symptoms and accelerate the recovery, apply such recipes:
Take a tablespoon of safflower thighs and pour 500 ml of warm water. Infusion should be cooked on low heat for 15-20 minutes. After boiling, wrap the medicine and let stand 4-5 hours. After this, strain and take ½ cup 3-4 times a day.
A teaspoon of dry roots of parsley fill with 250 ml of boiling water and let it brew until it cools. The drug is taken 25 ml 3 times a day.
A tablespoon of dry crushed rhizomes of valerian officinalis pour 300 ml of boiled water. The infusion should stand for 12 hours in a sealed container. After percolation, the drug should be taken 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day before meals.
Therapeutic properties are natural juices. To alleviate the painful symptoms, you can prepare cowberry, cranberry or lemon juice. It is better to drink a drink in a warm form.
To prevent disease use human gamma globulin. As a rule, it is used after contact with the patient. After scarlet fever, persistent immunity develops, which is immune to toxins and persists throughout life. Therefore, re-infection occurs very rarely, although it is possible with a weakened immune system.
Antibiotics for scarlet fever can be used only for medical purposes. Self-treatment is also dangerous, and the lack of therapy. In order to make sure that the disease did not cause pathological processes in the body, after 2-3 weeks after recovery, it is necessary to undergo laboratory tests, that is, to pass urine and blood tests. This will determine the presence of inflammation. Timely diagnosis of the disease and its correct treatment, accelerate the process of recovery and minimize the risk of complications.
Antibiotics are very common medications that are often used to treat purulent sore throats. Most patients prescribe antibiotics from the penicillins or cephalosporins - for example, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Cephalexin.
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To simplify the perception of information, this instruction for use of the drug "What and how many to drink antibiotics with scarlet fever?" translated and presented in a special form on the basis of the official instructions for medical use of the drug. Before use read the annotation that came directly to medicines.
Description provided for informational purposes and is not a guide to self-healing. The need for this drug, the purpose of the treatment regimen, methods and dose of the drug is determined solely by the attending physician. Self-medication is dangerous for your health.
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