Frontite is considered a relatively frequent pathology, which is an inflammation of the mucous nasal frontal sinuses. Disease in the early stages can be taken as a common runny nose, so most patients seek medical help only when the inflammatory process becomes common - the temperature rises, there is a severe headache, etc. In such a situation, it is very important to correctly prescribe antibiotics in front - only antibiotic therapy will help cure the disease and avoid the development of adverse complications.
Treatment of the frontitis with antibiotics
Before taking an antibiotic at the front, you need to make sure of its bacterial etiology, because the front is also viral or allergic.
When choosing a drug, it is important to carefully study its pharmacological characteristics and make sure that its active component will enter the nasal sinuses. Also of great importance is the resistance of pathogenic flora to antibiotic therapy.
Laboratory study of nasal secretions allows to identify the belonging of bacteria and assess their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs. This will make it possible to designate the right medicine in the future, which will be most effective in a particular case.
If, for any reason, there is no possibility of assessing resistance, then resort to the appointment of an antibiotic with the widest possible spectrum of antibacterial activity. The effectiveness of the prescribed therapy is determined after 2-3 days from the start of treatment. If there is no positive dynamics of the frontitis, then the antibiotic is replaced by another, with a different spectrum of action.
Indications of the antibiotics at the front
Before the start of treatment, it is necessary to undergo diagnostics to confirm the bacterial nature of the frontitis. If the doctor indicates an allergic, fungal or viral nature of the disease, then prescribing antibiotics with a front would be impractical.
Thus, indications for prescribing antibiotic therapy at the front are:
diagnosed bacterial etiology of the frontitis;
prolonged and severe fever;
presence of copious purulent discharge from the nasal passages;
critical deterioration of the patient's well-being;
period after otolaryngological operative intervention.
Antibiotic in front and sinusitis
Antibiotic in combination with inflammation in the form of a frontitis and sinusitis is prescribed taking into account the resistance of the pathogen to antibiotic therapy. Such an inflammatory process is considered quite a complicated disease, therefore, one should not engage in self-medication at any time. To successfully cure the frontitis and sinusitis with antibiotics, it is necessary to adhere to such rules:
take antibiotics only according to the scheme prescribed by the doctor;
if you have previously taken any medications, then you should definitely tell the doctor;
You can not make your own adjustments to the antibiotic regimen;
if you miss a pill accidentally, do not take a double dose, just take the drug as quickly as possible;
drink antibiotic better with warm water, in a volume of about 200 ml;
drink alcoholic beverages during antibiotic therapy is prohibited;
it is desirable to include in the diet sour-milk products.
Antibiotics for adults
Since frontitis is an infectious process, antibiotics in front are considered to be the main medicines. They are chosen according to the following principles:
if the pathogenic microorganism - the causative agent of the frontitis - is not identified, then an antibiotic with the widest spectrum of activity should be prescribed;
at the initial stage of treatment an extremely effective amount of the drug is prescribed - it is preferable to use the antibiotic in the form of injections (after the relief of acute symptoms it is possible to switch to the tablet form of antibiotics);
the duration of antibiotic therapy in front adults is approximately one and a half to two weeks, even if the symptoms of the disease have stopped after a few days;
The dose and frequency of antibiotic use in frontitis is determined by the doctor separately in each case;
concomitantly with antibiotics must be prescribed medications for auxiliary therapy - these are medications that eliminate pain, reduce temperature, reduce the intensity of discharge from the nose;
If the antibiotic does not show a positive effect within 3-4 days after the beginning of the intake, then it should be replaced by another, taking into account the results of bakposive.
Antibiotics for children in front
When front children are taking antibiotics is a must and very important point, since the inflammatory process can spread to the periosteum, the bones and then to the brain. To avoid such complications, it is necessary to prescribe antibiotics as early as possible to the child.
Antibiotics are prescribed, depending on the pathogen and the stage of the inflammatory process. In this case, it is necessary to closely monitor the child's well-being, since during the first day of antibiotic therapy an allergic reaction to the medication can develop. If this happens, then immediately give the child an antihistamine drug and stop taking antimicrobial medication, informing the treating pediatrician.
As a rule, the competent appointment of an antibiotic in front of children leads to a visible improvement in the condition already on the second or third day after the first administration of the drug. If the improvement is insignificant, or it is not at all, or even worse - the condition begins to deteriorate (temperature, nasal passages are pawned, pus is allocated), then the attending physician should replace the drug with another, with a stronger effect.
The use of a competent integrated approach to the treatment of the frontitis allows the patient to avoid the operation of opening and draining the frontal sinus. Injection of antibiotic solution into the frontal sinus is practiced relatively rarely and only in the presence of serious indications, since this procedure is considered quite traumatic.
The success of such forms of antibiotics, such as sprays and aerosols for intranasal (intracavitary) use. An active component of such agents is often aminoglycoside antibiotics - for example, Polydex or Isophra.
At the initial stages of antibiotic therapy, it is preferable to use injectable administration of antibiotic solutions - these can be intramuscular or intravenous injections.
With an easy flow of the frontitis, as well as after eliminating the acute symptoms of the disease, antibiotics can be taken in the form of tablets or capsules.
The use of antibiotics in front is varied: drugs can be administered depending on the type and activity of the pathogen.
Macrolide antibiotics - Azithromycin, Erythromycin, etc. Such medications affect the fact that the body creates adverse conditions for the growth and development of bacteria that caused the front. Especially recommended the use of macrolides in cases of chronic frontalitis, or when there is no opportunity to identify the pathogen.
Penicillin antibiotics - Amoxicillin, Augmentin, etc. Such medications are considered to be relatively narrow-minded, so they are appointed only when the type of pathogen is known.
Cephalosporin antibiotics - Cefazolin, Cefekol, etc. Such drugs are similar to penicillins, but they have an extended spectrum of antibacterial activity. Cephalosporins are prescribed when treatment of the frontitis with other antibiotics has been found to be ineffective.
Tetracycline antibiotics are prescribed predominantly externally, or in cases where the patient is intolerant of penicillins.
Pharmacodynamic and kinetic properties of antibiotics in frontites will be conveniently examined by the example of the injectable solution of Cefazolin and the tabletted drug Sumamed.
Cefazolin is one of the most active antibacterial drugs. It has a harmful effect on staphylococci, streptococci, corynebacteria, escherichia, shigella, klebsiella, proteus, enterobacteria, etc., but is powerless against rickettsia, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Cefazolin has an inhibitory effect on the construction of the cell wall of a pathogenic microorganism.
Sumamed is Azalid, representing a relatively new subgroup of macrolides. At a certain concentration in the tissues demonstrates bactericidal action. Sumamed affects gram-positive coccal flora, gram-negative microbes, several varieties of anaerobes. Sumamed is helpless before gram-positive microbes, which show resistance to erythromycin.
After intramuscular injection, the active ingredient of Cefazolin is immediately absorbed. The limit level in the blood is noted for 60 minutes, remaining in the therapeutic concentration from eight to twelve hours. Excretion occurs through the urinary system (not less than 90%). Cefazolin passes through the placenta, is determined in the mother's milk. It easily enters the synovial fluid, into the joint cavities.
Intravenous injection allows you to make the concentration of antibiotic in the blood higher, but the medicine is displayed faster.
Sumamed tablets are perfectly absorbed from the digestive system: the active ingredient is resistant to the influence of acidic media. If the patient takes 0.5 g of the drug, the maximum concentration in the serum is observed for 2.5-3 hours. Biological availability of Sumamed is estimated at 37%.
Use of the antibiotics at the front during pregnancy
In pregnancy, Cefazolin treatment is allowed, but only if there are strong indications.
Sumamed in tablets for the treatment of pregnant women is not used.
Both drugs can be prescribed in the lactation period, but breastfeeding for the duration of treatment is discontinued.
Unambiguous contraindications to the appointment of antibiotics at the front are the period of pregnancy and individual reaction to the medication. In other situations, you can choose an antibiotic that will not be contraindicated in any given case.
Relative contraindications to antibiotic treatment at the front can be:
impaired liver function;
impaired renal function.
If the patient has relative contraindications, then the doctor chooses the most optimal drug in a particular case.
Side effects of the antibiotics at the front
Absolutely all antibiotics, including those that are prescribed at the front, have certain side manifestations. We present you a list of the most common unwanted symptoms.
Fungal lesions of the skin or mucous membranes.
Inflammation in the digestive tract, diarrhea, abdominal pain.
Changes in the blood - leukopenia, eosinophilia.
Loss of appetite.
Pain in the head, dizziness, change in taste, sensitivity disorders, sleep disorders, myasthenia gravis, psychomotor disorders.
Transient impairment of vision.
Tachycardia, change in blood pressure.
Difficulty breathing, bleeding from the nose.
Pain in the muscles, in the back, in the joints.
Feeling tired, fever.
Dosing and administration
Cefazolin can be used in the form of intramuscular and intravenous injections or drip infusions. The average daily volume of an antibiotic in front of adult patients is 0.25 to 1 g, with a frequency of 3-4 times. The maximum daily amount of Cefazolin is 6 g. The duration of therapy is determined by the doctor.
Sumamed tablets at the front are taken by adult patients in the amount of 0.5 g once a day for three days. Accordingly, the course dose of the drug is 1.5 g.
Do not engage in self-medication: the doctor only treats the frontier, based on the results of the diagnosis and on the individual characteristics of the patient.
The intake of an overestimated dosage of antibiotics at the front can be accompanied by an increase in adverse events. The most common symptoms are nausea, transient worsening of auditory function, vomiting, diarrhea.
Therapeutic measures in case of an overdose are symptomatic.
Interactions with other drugs
Cefazolin is not used concomitantly with anticoagulant drugs and diuretics.
Do not mix cefazolin and aminoglycosides in one injection.
Sumamed is undesirable to take simultaneously with anti-acid drugs, with digoxin, with medicines based on ergot alkaloids, with cyclosporine.
Cefazolin is stored at room temperature, in places difficult to reach for children. It is recommended to place medicines storage places away from heating devices and sunlight.
Sumamed in tablets or capsules is also preserved at ordinary room temperature, up to + 25 ° C.
If you use other antibiotics at the front, then more details about the rules for storing the drug can be found in the attached instructions.
Cefazolin in glass bottles may be stored for up to 24 months, subject to the appropriate conditions.
Sumamed in the form of tablets or capsules can be stored for up to 3 years.
Information about the expiration date for other antibiotics is prescribed on the package or in the annotation to the specific drug.
The best antibiotic in front
The most convenient form of antibiotic in front of many consider pills, so try to choose the most optimal and effective drug in this dosage form:
Macropen is a popular representative of macrolide preparations, with an active component of midekamycin. Macropen oppresses the development of pneumococci, a hemophilic rod. The recommended intake of tablets - three times a day after meals, for two weeks.
Augmentin is the most prominent representative of polysynthetic penicillin agents, with a wide spectrum of activity. The course of therapy Augmentin is not recommended to continue for longer than 2 weeks, as this can lead to the development of side symptoms such as dyspepsia, imbalance of microflora.
Sumamed is one of the modern antibacterial agents from the macrolide group. Tablets are taken only once a day, between meals, for five days.
Flemoxin Solutab is a penicillin preparation with relatively few side effects (provided that the dosage is strictly observed).
Amoxiclav is an antibiotic that is often used for various respiratory infections in adult patients. Amoxiclav belongs to the category of semi-synthetic penicillin preparations.
Zitrolide is a preparation of macrolide equipment, with a relatively strong and pronounced antibacterial action. The medication should be taken once a day, between meals.
At the initial stage of the disease, injection of antibiotics is often prescribed: the drug solution acts more quickly, as it has a greater bioavailability:
Ceftriaxone is a representative of the third generation of cephalosporin antibiotics. The drug is effective in acute front. It is dispensed in ampoules in the form of a lyophilizate for making a solution. Ceftriaxone can be administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
Cefazolin is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin with strong antibacterial activity. It is well accepted by the body, however in some cases it can still cause allergies and dysbacteriosis.
Treatment of a front without antibiotics
The use of antibiotics for the treatment of the frontitis is mandatory - but only in the case of bacterial etiology of the disease. If the allergic nature of the frontitis is effective, antihistamines prescribed against the background of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and immunostimulating treatment will be effective. Complex prescription of medicines will help in a short time to calm pain, eliminate swelling of the nasal mucosa, strengthen the body and adjust it to fight infection.
With a virus front, special drugs - interferons - will come to the rescue. These drugs, which include human interferon α-2b - this substance activates the immune response in otolaryngological viral infections. The most popular medicines in this direction are:
Grippferon with loratidine (with antiallergic component);
During the entire treatment of the front, it is necessary to keep the condition of the microflora in the intestines under control. To prevent dysbacteriosis, it is recommended to take an antifungal drug - for example, Fluconazole. If time has been lost and dysbacteriosis has already developed, it is important to start the additional intake of probiotic and prebiotic drugs as soon as possible.
Antibiotics in front of the microbial nature is an important and indispensable stage in the treatment of the disease. However, one must take into account that the drug should be selected and prescribed only by a doctor. Chaotic and illiterate reception of an antibiotic can provoke a marked aggravation of the patient's condition, as well as lead to the emergence of resistance of the exciter bacterium to the medication taken.
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
To simplify the perception of information, this instruction for use of the drug "Treatment of the frontitis with antibiotics: a list of drugs, regimens" translated and presented in a special form on the basis of the official instructions for medical use of the drug. Before use read the annotation that came directly to medicines.
Description provided for informational purposes and is not a guide to self-healing. The need for this drug, the purpose of the treatment regimen, methods and dose of the drug is determined solely by the attending physician. Self-medication is dangerous for your health.
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