Stroke is an acute disorder of the cerebral circulation, which is characterized by sudden (within minutes, less often - hours) appearance of focal neurologic symptoms (motor, speech, sensory, coordinative, visual and other disorders) and / or cerebral infringements (impaired consciousness, headache, vomiting etc.), which persist for longer than 24 hours or lead to the death of the patient in a shorter period of time as a result of the cause of cerebrovascular origin.
Strokes (acute impairment of cerebral circulation) is a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by sudden focal cessation of cerebral blood flow, which causes the appearance of neurological disorders. Strokes can be ischemic (80%), usually due to thrombosis or embolism; or hemorrhagic (20%) due to rupture of the vessel (subarachnoid or parenchymal hemorrhage). If focal neurological symptoms are resolved within 1 h, a disorder of cerebral circulation is classified as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). When a stroke occurs, damage to the brain tissue occurs, with TIA, if the lesions occur, they are significantly less extensive. In Western countries, stroke ranks third in the list of causes of death and the first among neurological diseases - in the list of causes of disability.
With a sudden blockage of the cerebral artery, supplying blood to the brain region, the function of the affected area of the brain is immediately lost. If the occlusion persists for a certain time, the brain tissue undergoes necrosis with the development of a cerebral infarction, which can lead to irreversible loss of function. In this regard, the goal of stroke treatment is to restore the blood supply (reperfusion) of the affected area, limit the amount of damage by increasing the resistance of the brain to ischemia and preventing subsequent arterial occlusion. Although the achievement of these goals is associated with a number of difficulties, recently there has been progress in developing effective treatments. This chapter discusses drugs that prevent ischemic stroke and limit the associated damage to the brain tissue.
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