Neurotraumatologist is a specialist who deals with patients with acute injuries of the brain and spinal cord, nervous system, and also eliminates the consequences of such traumas (hematomas, bruises, brain abscesses, poorly located bone fragments, deformities of the skull, etc.). In addition to injuries, the doctor treats intervertebral hernias, brain tumors, etc.
In addition to treatment, the specialist conducts appointment and monitoring of rehabilitation activities after various injuries.
Who is a neurotraumatologist?
Neurotraumatologist is a doctor, whose help is required for craniocerebral injuries, spinal cord injuries, spinal cord. Also, the specialist deals with the consequences of these injuries (hematomas, deformities, abscesses, etc.).
Neurotraumatology was originally part of neurosurgery. But at the present time it has become a separate science and solves questions concerning traumatic injuries of the nervous system.
When should I go to a neurotraumatologist?
A neurotraumatologist may be needed for lesions that are associated with the spine. In case of damage a person feels very strong pain, mobility is sharply limited and a person is forced to take an unnatural position. Any attempts to move or take a different posture lead to an intensification of painful sensations. When inspecting the site of damage, you can see a swelling or hemorrhage.
Injuries to the spinal cord cause severe pain in the neck, back, head. In this case, numbness or tingling in the limbs can be felt, a person can completely or partially lose control of some part of the body, coordination of movements, walking, breathing difficulties, pressure in the chest area. In the region of the head or neck may appear swelling.
For help, the neurotraumatologist is treated after falls, bruises, various injuries of the skull, spine. Also, if neoplasms are found in the spinal cord or brain (or other pathological processes), the patient is referred for examination to a neurotraumatologist.
What diagnostic methods does the neurotraumatologist use?
Neurotraumatology after the initial examination, as a rule, sends to the general analysis of blood and urine, which in principle is the standard procedure for referring to doctors of any specialization.
Also, if necessary, a specialist can prescribe hormonal, biochemical, immunological tests that will help determine the condition of the pathology.
Neurotraumatologist uses such diagnostic methods:
spinal puncture (puncture of the subarachnoid space, lumbar puncture, lumbar puncture) - is performed for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment. This diagnosis allows you to establish hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, its intensity, type of stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic), determine the inflammatory process in the meninges and other changes in the cerebrospinal fluid in many diseases of the central nervous system;
Ultrasound (ultrasound) of the lumbar region, intervertebral discs allows you to inspect the discs of the spine, spinal canal and nerves of all parts of the spine. This method is prescribed for tumors, hernia, osteochondrosis and various abnormal conditions.
Spondylography (X-ray) is an obligatory method of investigation for various injuries of the spine. The x-ray of the spine is made in three projections, which makes it possible to establish changes in the axis of the spine, displacement and dislocation of the vertebral discs, bone deformation, and the like.
computed tomography (CT) scan of the spine allows you to assess the condition of the bone structure, soft tissues, blood vessels. The image in CT is obtained in different planes, and you can also make a three-dimensional image. CT of the brain, skull, soft tissues and vessels of the head helps the doctor to establish various injuries and diseases of the skull and brain. Also this method allows to plan the patient's treatment more effectively. This method of research provides the specialist with more detailed information about the disease, craniocerebral trauma, stroke, various formations in the brain, etc .;
Myelography is a special method of investigation, which consists in introducing a special substance into the subarachnoid space that surrounds the spinal cord and nerve roots, after which a picture of the damaged area is taken. Usually, this method is prescribed for the transmission of the spinal cord or nerve roots, with intervertebral hernia, with stenosis of the spinal canal;
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) allows the doctor to examine the anatomical structure of the vertebrae and intervertebral discs, the spinal cord, the space between the vertebrae. This method of research helps in the diagnosis of diseases and the effective treatment of various diseases;
electromyography - allows to conduct an investigation of the electrical activity of muscles. As a rule, this diagnosis is usually appointed in conjunction with electroneurography. Electromyography is used to diagnose nerve transmission, trauma, pathology of nerve roots and other nervous and muscular diseases.
What does a neurotraumatologist do?
Neurotraumatologist in his practice deals with the diagnosis and treatment of craniocerebral injuries, various pathologies and injuries of the spinal cord, spine, eliminates the consequences of these disorders (bruises, defects, bone fragments, abscesses, etc.).
To craniocerebral injuries most often result in mechanical damage to the skull and internal formations (vessels, nerves, cerebral membranes, brain). Typically, such injuries occur in road accidents, falls, in production, as well as sports or domestic injuries of the skull.
No less danger to life is also the damage to the spine. When vertebral fractures often occur injuries and intervertebral discs, spinal cord, adjacent muscles, nerve roots. The consequences of such injuries can be very different, it all depends on the type of fracture. For example, with an unstable intervertebral disc there is always a pain in the spine, this condition can lead to impaired spinal cord functions, blocking nerve impulses, which will limit mobility. In this case, the patient can not move without assistance. With such conditions, the consultation of a neurotraumatologist is mandatory. The doctor will help to establish the cause of the disease and will prescribe an effective treatment.
What diseases are treated by a neurotraumatologist?
Neurotraumatology deals with patients with injuries of the spinal cord (spinal cord), skull, brain, as well as with various neoplasms in the spinal cord or brain, with intervertebral hernias, etc. Also, the specialist removes the consequences caused by trauma (removal of bruises, foci of bruises, bone fragments , which exert pressure on the brain, stabilize the spine, etc.).
The diseases that the specialist deals with are caused mainly by various mechanical injuries (blows, falls, etc.), which can cause quite serious consequences for the person, up to complete immobilization.
Traumas of the skull, fractures of the cervical vertebrae, spine - all these injuries lead to severe conditions, entail damage to adjacent vessels, nerve endings, organs, etc.
In addition to all kinds of injuries, the neurotraumatologist treats various tumors in the spinal cord, the brain, intervertebral hernias, etc., which also disrupts the nervous system.
However, this is not a complete list of diseases treated by a specialist, in general, that a doctor deals with the treatment of such conditions that led to trauma to the human nervous system, as well as the elimination of the consequences of such damage.
Advice of a neurotraumatologist
The spine is not only a base for the skeleton, but also a kind of protection for the spinal cord. It is for this reason that spinal trauma is considered the most severe and dangerous for human health and life.
Bruises, spinal cord injuries can deform the skeleton, paralyze limbs, disrupt the functions of the pelvic organs.
If there is a trauma to the spine, you should ensure maximum immobility of the damaged area. The victim should be extremely carefully shifted to a stretcher (can be replaced with boards, wooden shield, etc.), in no case should we allow the spine to sag.
Damage to the spine includes fractures, dislocations, dislocations of the vertebrae. These kinds of injuries are dangerous because the spinal cord passes through the spine, which can be squeezed by displaced fragments of bones. If the spinal cord is damaged (there was a rupture), then the person completely disappears sensitivity and paralysis of the lower part of the trunk occurs.
In vertebral fractures in the cervical region, wrap the neck with a thick layer of cotton wool and bind a bandage on top. The victim's field should be shifted to a stretcher, and the pillow (or rolled-up clothing, blankets, etc.) should be placed under the head. Hospitalization in a hospital with neck fractures or spinal injuries is mandatory.
The stomach is the most vulnerable place. The walls of the peritoneum are formed by connective tissue and muscles, and many vital organs are not protected by bones. Given this, abdominal injuries can have varying degrees of severity. In case of stomach injuries, an infection can be introduced into the bloodstream, which can lead to blood infection and death. Some abdominal injuries lead to severe bleeding, which in most cases is stopped only by surgical methods. In case of injuries to the abdominal cavity, the victim should be completely at rest and covered with a sterile bandage (to reduce blood loss). If, with a trauma from the peritoneum, internal organs (omentum, intestinal loops) have fallen out, they must be closed with a bandage impregnated with vaseline oil. You can not give a person with injuries of the abdominal cavity to drink or eat, also before the examination by the doctor should not give the victim painkillers.
The whole skeleton rests on the pelvic bone, in addition there are many important organs located there. Fractures of pelvic bones can cause damage to internal organs located there (bladder, rectum, genital organs, etc.), nerves, vessels. Therefore, trauma to the pelvic bones are among the most serious types of damage. If the injured person's pelvis is damaged, it is necessary to lay the victim on a solid stretcher, bend his legs slightly (put cushions or convolutions of clothing, blankets, etc. Under the knees) and wait for the ambulance to arrive.
Found an error? Select it and press Ctrl + Enter.
Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"