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Sodium chloride solution 0.9% isotonic

Last reviewed by: Aleksey Portnov , medical expert, on 01.06.2018

Sodium Chloride 0.9% solution is a substance with de-toxication and rehydration properties.

Indications of the sodium chloride solution 0.9% isotonic

This drug is used when a person loses a large amount of liquid outside the cells. The medication is used in conditions leading to the restriction of its intake:

  • dyspepsia, developing with intoxication;
  • diarrhea and vomiting;
  • cholera;
  • burns covering a large area of the body;
  • hypochloremia or -natriemia, the background state during which dehydration acts.

In addition, sodium chloride can be used externally - they are washed with a nose with eyes or various wounds. With it, you can moisten the dressings, treat the face and do inhalations.

NaCl solution is used for sessions of forced diuresis during intoxication, constipation or internal bleeding (in the intestine, lungs or stomach).

The drug can also be administered as a substance for dissolving the components used by the parenteral route.

Release form

Release of the medicine occurs in the form of a solution, in ampoules with a capacity of 5, 10 or 20 ml. These ampoules are used to dilute the medicines needed for injections.

The preparation is also produced in bottles with a volume of 0.1, 0.2, and in addition 0.4 or 1 liter. Such medicinal fluids are prescribed for external treatment, intravenous drippers and enemas.

Pharmacodynamics

A medication can compensate for the deficiency of the Na component that has arisen in the body in cases of the development of various diseases. Along with this, sodium chloride increases the volume of circulating fluid in the intravascular space.

This effect of the drug is due to the presence of sodium ions and chloride ions in its composition. These components are able to pass through the cell walls using a variety of pathways (this list includes a Na-K pump). The component Na plays an important role in the movement of neuronal impulses, and simultaneously it participates in renal metabolic and electrophysiological cardiac processes.

The pharmacopeia shows that sodium chloride maintains a stable level of plasma and extracellular fluid pressure. A healthy person can get the required amount of this compound with food. But in case of any violation (for example, with diarrhea with vomiting or severe burns), enhanced excretion of these components develops. As a result, there is a lack of chloride and sodium ions, because of which the blood density increases, smooth muscle spasms and convulsions appear, and in addition the work of blood flow and HC is destroyed.

With the timely addition of saline to the blood, it is possible to quickly restore the water-electrolyte balance. But, in connection with the fact that the index π in LS is similar to the level of plasma pressure, the substance remains for a long time inside the channel of blood vessels, quickly excreted from the body. As a result, after 60 minutes in the intravascular space only half the dose of the injected drug liquid is retained. Because of this, with blood loss, sodium chloride is not very effective.

The drug is able to exert a de-toxication and plasma-substituting effect.

After performing intravenous injection of drugs, there is a potentiation of diuresis, and in addition, replenishment of the lack of sodium and chlorine inside the body.

Pharmacokinetics

Excretion of the substance occurs to a greater extent with the participation of the kidneys. A small part of the sodium is excreted with feces and sweat.

Use of the sodium chloride solution 0.9% isotonic during pregnancy

Pregnant women with a dropper with sodium chloride are allowed to prescribe only in pathological conditions - such as moderate or severe toxicosis, but in addition to this gestosis. In the normal state, pregnant women receive this element with food. It should be taken into account that due to the excess of the element, the woman may have swelling.

Contraindications

Among the contraindications:

  • hyperchloremia, and in addition hypokalemia or hypernatremia;
  • Hyperhydria, which is extracellular in nature, as well as acidosis;
  • swelling that appears in the brain or lung area;
  • failure of the left ventricle in an acute degree;
  • occurrence of circulatory damages, the background of which is the threat of the development of pulmonary and cerebral edema;
  • use of GCS in very large portions.

With care, the medication is used in people with elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema, decompensated grade of CHF, and also kidney failure, which is of chronic nature and pre-eclampsia. Caution is also needed for people with diagnosed other conditions, accompanied by a delay in the Na component inside the body.

When prescribing sodium chloride to dissolve other medications, you should also remember the above contraindications.

Side effects of the sodium chloride solution 0.9% isotonic

The use of medication can lead to the appearance of such side effects:

  • hypokalemia;
  • Hyperhydria;
  • acidosis.

When using the drug in accordance with the instructions, the probability of occurrence of negative reactions is extremely low.

Using medicines in the form of a basic solvent, it is necessary to determine the side effects depending on the properties of drugs diluted with a solution.

If any adverse reactions develop, consult a doctor immediately.

Dosing and administration

Injections of saline solution are carried out SC or to / in the method.

Often the dosing is given intravenously, through an IV, which had previously been necessary to warm to a temperature indicator 36-38 of C. The injected volume of drug to the patient based on the state of human and the number of lost body fluids. In addition, you need to take into account the weight and age of the patient.

For a day, an average of 0.5 liters of medication is used. In this case, the substance is introduced at a rate of 540 ml / h (on average). In case of severe poisoning, a maximum allowable daily dose of 3 liters can be administered. If there is a need, you can inject 0.5 l at a rate of 70 drops / minute.

For children, the sizes of daily portions are in the range of 20-100 ml / kg. In this case, the size of the dose is determined by taking into account the age and weight indices of the child. It should be remembered that with prolonged use of drugs it is necessary to monitor the plasma values of electrolytes and their level inside the excreted urine.

To dissolve the substances used through the dropper, 50-250 ml of sodium chloride per 1 dose of the substance is used. The parameters of administration are determined by the basic medicament.

Hypertensive solution is injected intravenously.

When appointing drugs to quickly restore the balance of chloride and sodium ions, you need to take 0.1 liters of the drug (through a dropper).

To perform a rectal enema, by which the act of defecation is induced, 0.1 liters of a 5% solution is required. For the day is also allowed the introduction of 3 liters of saline.

Hypertensive enema should be slowly administered with swelling affecting the heart or kidneys, hypertension and increased level of ICP (in a dosage of 10-30 ml). It is forbidden to conduct such enemas in the presence of erosion in the large intestine, and in addition to inflammation.

Wound lesions with pus are treated with the solution according to the scheme, which is determined by the treating doctor. Compresses with medicament are applied to the wound itself or to another lesion in the epidermis. Such compresses help the escape of pus and provoke the rapid death of pathogenic bacteria.

A nasal spray must be treated with a cleaned nasal cavity. For adults, a dosage of 2 drops is required inside each of the nares, and for children - 1 drop. Medication is prescribed for therapy or prevention. Bury the drug should be about 20 days.

Inhaled sodium chloride is used to treat colds. In this case, the drug is mixed with bronchodilator drugs. Carry out inhalations three times a day, for 10 minutes.

At extreme need, such saline can be manufactured on your own at home. In this case, it is required to stir the boiled salt (1 teaspoon) in boiled water (1 L). If you need to make a certain dose of the solution, for example, with a salt weighing 50 g, you need to perform the necessary measurements for this. Such a substance can be used locally, for inhalation procedures, enemas, and with it rinses. But it is strictly forbidden to administer it intravenously, or to apply it for eye washing or wound lesions of an open type.

Overdose

Due to poisoning, the patient can feel nausea, abdominal pain and palpitation, and in addition he may develop fever, diarrhea and vomiting. In addition, intoxication may increase blood pressure, develop puffiness, located in the lungs, or has a peripheral nature, kidney failure, dizziness and a sense of weakness. In addition, there are generalized or muscle cramps and a coma. Because of the large number of injected drugs, hypernatremia may appear.

Overdose can cause acidosis of a hyperchloric nature.

If a therapeutic drug is used to dilute other drugs, intoxication is usually associated with the characteristics of medicaments that are dissolved using sodium chloride.

If the patient was accidentally injected with a too high dose of NaCl, the procedure of administration should be completed immediately and whether the patient showed negative signs. Further, if necessary, symptomatic measures are taken.

Interactions with other drugs

Sodium chloride has pharmacological compatibility with a large number of medications. It is thanks to this property that it is often prescribed for the dissolution or dilution of many medicines.

During the dissolution procedures, a mandatory visual inspection of the compatibility of the substances is required to identify during the breeding process the possible presence of sediment, a change in the hue of the liquid, and so on.

The therapeutic agent has poor compatibility with norepinephrine.

When combined with corticosteroids, you must constantly monitor the level of electrolytes inside the blood.

Simultaneous use with spirapril and enalapril leads to a weakening of their antihypertensive properties.

The drug is incompatible with filgrastim (a stimulant of the leukopoiesis process), and in addition polymyxin B (is a polypeptide-type antibiotic).

There is evidence that saline has the ability to raise bioavailability indicators for medicines.

Diluted with sodium chloride, powdery antibiotics are fully absorbed within the body.

Storage conditions

Sodium chloride must be kept in a place closed from penetration of moisture and children's access, inside a tightly clogged container. Temperatures are not higher than 25 ° C. Hermetic packaging allows even freezing the medicine.

Shelf life

Sodium chloride 0.9% solution, packed in ampoules, can be used for a period of 5 years from the date of manufacture of drugs; 0,9% drug, packed in vials - in the period of 12 months, and 10% of the substance in flacon has a shelf life of 2 years.

Application for children

Prescribe Sodium Chloride for children only with the observance of instructions and under the close supervision of specialists. Due to the fact that renal activity in children is still immature, it is possible to conduct a repeat procedure only after the sodium index inside the plasma has been accurately determined.

Analogues

Various manufacturers of medicinal preparations release this solution under other names - these are the following substances: Risosin, NaCl Brown, NaCl Cinco, and also NaCl Bufus, Salin and others.

In addition, substances containing sodium chloride - complex solutions of salt type, CH3COONa + NaCl and so on, are produced.

Reviews

Sodium chloride 0.9% solution receives a large number of positive reviews. This medicine is considered extremely useful. In particular, it is often noted as a nasal spray that allows treating rhinitis or acting as a preventative against a cold. Thanks to the effective moistening of the nasal mucosa, recovery is faster.

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Attention!

To simplify the perception of information, this instruction for use of the drug "Sodium chloride solution 0.9% isotonic" translated and presented in a special form on the basis of the official instructions for medical use of the drug. Before use read the annotation that came directly to medicines.

Description provided for informational purposes and is not a guide to self-healing. The need for this drug, the purpose of the treatment regimen, methods and dose of the drug is determined solely by the attending physician. Self-medication is dangerous for your health.

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