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Pigmented spots on the face

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 12.04.2020
 
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Pigmented spots on the face - a phenomenon unpleasant not only from the aesthetic point of view. All pigmented areas of the skin can indicate possible problems in the functioning of organs and systems. Of course, pigmentation can be associated with natural physiological changes in the body, for example, with pregnancy. However, many pigmented areas of the face are a signal about diseases of the liver, skin, hormonal failures. The desire to get rid of pigmentation without finding out its causes is at least unreasonable, because it is like destroying an encoded letter with important information on which health in general depends.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

Causes of the pigmented spots on the face

Pigmented spots on the face do not arise without cause, the culprit for the violation of a homogeneous skin tone is a special pigment - melanin.

What is melanin and what can indicate the pigmentation spots on the face.

Melanin is a coloring pigment that is produced in the deepest, most distant layers of the dermis (basal). Melanin is a product of special cells - melanocytes, which not only produce pigment, but actively push it into the upper layers of the skin. The amount and quality of melanin is met by the thyroid gland together with the pituitary gland and glands producing sex hormones. Thus, any color change in the facial skin can indicate changes in these organs. Pregnancy is manifested by characteristic spots - chloasma, which speaks of imbalance in the hormonal balance, characteristic spots on the cheeks nearer to the neck indicate a violation of liver function. Supersaturation of the upper layers of the skin with melanin is called hyperpigmentation. Reducing the production of melanin is called hypopigmentation. Dyschromia - Skin discoloration is characteristic not only of the face, melanin protects the entire body, besides it is part of the hair, internal organs and even the part of the brain called black matter. If the synthesis of melanin is disturbed, this is a direct indication of a number of serious diseases - from the pathology of the nervous and mental system (phenylketonuria) to Parkinson's disease. Statistics argue that the less melanin in the skin, the more vulnerable the human body to diseases, in this sense the first on the list are people with a rare hereditary factor - tyrosine-negative albinism.

The reasons for which pigmentation spots on the face may appear: 

  • Genetic, hereditary factor. Genetic predisposition to skin pigmentation is typical for people who have the first phototype - a light skin. Any portion of ultraviolet for such white people - a direct road to the pigment spots on the face and body. 
  • Aggressive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Violation of the regime of sun exposure, especially in the hot summer season, can provoke failures in the production of melanin. 
  • Hormonal dysfunction, changes in hormonal balance. It can be a natural period of pregnancy, but also the pigmentation can provoke the pathology of the ovaries, the thyroid gland. 
  • The age factor. Over time, the skin loses its protective properties, becomes more sensitive to the influence of external factors - solar radiation, and reacts faster to natural changes in the functioning of internal organs and systems. 
  • Compensation factor, when the pigment tries to protect the damaged areas of the skin. 
  • Chronic diseases of the liver, digestive tract. Any pathology in internal organs is reflected on the face in the literal sense of the word.

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Forms

Pigmented spots on the face are conventionally grouped into three main groups: 

Freckles, which have a beautiful scientific name - Ephelin (in Greek - sunspots). These pigmentation spots on the face are small, scattered not only in the face, but also throughout the body. Most often, ephelids appear on the exposed to the sun areas of the skin. Freckles - a characteristic feature of the first phototype, that is, people with white, sensitive skin. 

Chlazmy - pigmented spots on the face, located, as a rule, symmetrically, having a clear outline. This kind of pigmentation does not recognize sex, age and racial limitations. Any violation of hormonal balance, whether it be pregnancy, drug or alcohol intoxication, endocrine disease can trigger the appearance of chloasma on the face. 

Age spots on the face - lentigo. Absolutely harmless pigmented formations, different in size, most often brownish in color, they appear on the exposed sun and air areas of the skin. Lentigo can appear on the face, arms, back and chest.

Pigmented spots on the face, caused by more serious internal diseases: 

The nevus or the so-called birthmark. It is considered a benign dermal formation formed by melanin-containing cells. Nevuses can be different in structure, size and color. Most often nevuses are harmless enough, however, some of them, under the influence of unfavorable factors - trauma, irradiation can degenerate into malignant tumors - melanoma. 

Pigmented spots on the face in the forehead area, limited by a centimeter line - linea fusca. This is a rare type of pigmentation, nevertheless, it is very indicative in terms of symptoms of menacing pathologies of the nervous system - syphilitic damage, oncology of the brain, encephalitis. 

Hepatic pigmentation - chloasma (chloasma hepatica). This kind of pigmentation indicates chronic diseases of the liver, pancreas. Hepatic pigmentation has a clear symmetry, is located on the cheeks closer to the neck, also characteristic of it are typical vascular networks - telangiectasias. 

Brocc's dermatosis. It has a symmetrical pigmentation in the mouth area, which is why it is called pigmentary perioral dermatosis. Pigmentation can also extend to the chin. This is a typical female pigmentation, in men such dermatosis is not found, as the main cause of Brock's dermatosis is the violation of the ovulation process. 

Pigmented spots on the face of a secondary nature, as a relapse of major dermal chronic diseases. The cause is eczema, flat lice, secondary syphilis, neurodermatitis, and burns.

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Treatment of the pigmented spots on the face

Earlier, back in the old days, our great-grandmothers rubbed the juice of all kinds of plants, getting rid of the sun's gifts - ephelin, and simply freckles. If you look through newspapers and magazines of the last century, you might get the impression that everything that grew on the ground, from dandelions to carrots (carrots, apparently served as a masking agent rather than a bleaching agent, could save the pigment spots on the face). Today, people who are trying to recreate a smooth skin tone of the face, are relieved of such troubles, and instead of applying masks from a cucumber they prefer to visit professional cosmetology salons. Cosmetology has a huge arsenal of methods, methods and tools that allow or minimize dyschromia, or get rid of such a condition, pigmented spots on the face, forever. Everything depends on the degree of expression, their type and the reason for their appearance. Sometimes a shallow peel, and sometimes cycles of more serious and lengthy procedures are required.

The most popular methods are the following: 

  • Chemical renewal of the surface layer of the skin - chemical peeling. To get rid of pigmentation, as a rule, it is enough to apply a shallow peel. It is made with the help of a specially selected acid solution, appropriate to the type and structure of the skin. 
  • Grinding with a laser device. The skin is a good absorber of laser pulses, similar grinding removes for a long time and such pigmentation spots on the face, like freckles, and senile chloasma. 
  • Phototherapeutic procedures. Pulsed light irradiation is absorbed by a pigmented spot, which subsequently begins to lose color and turns pale. In addition to depigmentation, phototherapy helps the skin to rejuvenate, as it activates the synthesis of elastin and collagen. 
  • Microdermabrasion method. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Abrasive action has a stream of tiny crystals that seem to cut a thin layer of the epidermis, provoking its regeneration and renewal. 
  • Mesotherapy method. Microinjections with bleaching components (vitamin C, dimethylaminoethanol) allow to restore the natural complexion after the course of procedures.

Pigmented spots on the face are certainly not a pleasant phenomenon, but more often than not they represent a cosmetic defect that can be eliminated or minimized with the help of modern cosmetology technologies. In more complex situations, a complex treatment of internal organs and systems is required to eliminate the underlying cause of dyschromia on the face.

More information of the treatment

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