Papilloma of the skin

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020

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Papillomas on the skin (synovial fibroepithelial polyps) are small benign lesions, more often small ones that appear due to lesions of papillomavirus. This virus is transmitted from one person to another, mainly, with a weakening of the immune defenses of the body.

According to statistics, at least 90% of people are carriers of papillomavirus, but the disease may not always manifest itself, but only under favorable circumstances for the virus.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]

Causes of papillomas on the skin

The main causes of papillomas on the skin are associated with the transmission of the virus from one person to another. The virus can go during sexual intercourse (in 60% of cases), or through damaged skin or mucous in the home. The virus can be "hooked" when shaking hands, while wearing someone else's clothes, while visiting beauty salons or polyclinics when using insufficiently processed tools.

A child can get infected from his own mother during intrauterine development or during labor.

Due to certain peculiarities, in women, the transmission of infection most often occurs sexually, and men are infected with a contact-household method.

If the virus is in the body, this does not in all cases mean disease. The carrier can live with the virus, and not to guess about its existence. In order for the papillomavirus to manifest itself, one or more factors are necessary:

  • weakening of the body's defenses, frequent stresses, experiences, depressive states;
  • chronic fatigue, physical overload;
  • weakness of immune forces as a result of long-term infections or surgical operations;
  • pregnancy and other cardinal changes in the hormonal background in the body.

If the immune forces are strong enough, the disease may not develop at all, even with most of the factors listed.

trusted-source[8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]

Pathomorphology of papilloma of the skin

Papilloma of the skin - a benign tumor histogenetically associated with the epidermis, can occur at any age, but more often in the elderly. It has the appearance of single or multiple, sometimes grouped exophytic outgrowths, usually on a narrower base. With a smooth or friable surface, elastic consistency, up to 1 cm in size, rarely - more, different colors - from light brown to various shades of gray. It is localized mainly on the neck, in natural folds or on the trunk.

Detect intersex sprouting of multilayered planar epithelium with preservation of differentiation of layers. Acanthotic strands consist of highly differentiated epithelium with well-defined intercellular bridges. Sometimes the cells of the banal layer contain a lot of melanin, and the stratum corneum can be sharply thickened (keratopapilloma). In the thickness of the epidermal cords can be found foci of keratinization, in places with the formation of horny cysts. The stroma of formation is represented by a connective tissue with a different number of vessels.

Histogenetically, the papilloma is the result of excessive development of the epidermis with the formation of papillary outgrowths, probably as a reaction of the epithelium to some stimulus, possibly of a viral nature. In this respect, the papilloma may resemble an ordinary wart, although the latter is more clearly marked with viral lesions in the form of multiple "koylocytes".

Symptoms of papillomas on the skin

The duration of the incubation period for infection with the papilloma virus depends largely on the overall health indicators of the patient and according to the average statistical data is approximately three months. During this period of time, no signs of disease are observed. Visible signs appear much later, when suitable conditions for the virus come.

Papilloma is the same wart, which is a benign neoplasm of the epidermal skin layer. Papilloma can germinate by itself or by a small group. The shade of formation is more often neutral: the papilloma in most cases has a skin color and can be localized anywhere, including the outer surface of the extremities, interdigital spaces, eyelids, near-lips, neck,

Education, provoked by papillomavirus, differs from other tumors in that after a while they can disappear on their own, and then appear again. Such a course of the process is typical for sudden fluctuations in the state of the patient's immunity.

What does the papilloma look like on the skin?

The papilloma is more often localized on the open surfaces of the body, mainly on the outer parts of the hands and feet. Papilloma is a clearly defined, prominent nodule over the skin, which does not show signs of inflammation (redness, pain, swelling). The nodule is characterized by rough uneven surface (sometimes with small papillae), covered with signs of hyperkeratosis. Nodular formations are quite dense, small, hemispherical, color - with a hint of skin, or varying from yellow to gray.

Papillomas can be located multiple, with the first tumor emerging is larger than those that appeared later. Nodules are capable of fusion, which leads to the formation of large tuberous formations with clearly marked hyperkeratosis.

Papillomas can appear on the lips and even in the mouth or tongue. Any sensations (soreness, itching) of the papilloma do not cause, unless they are located in places where discomfort is inevitable - it is the tongue, the subungual part, etc.

Papilloma on the skin of the penis

Papilloma on the skin of the penis is formed mainly in the head and foreskin area. Formations can be separate, or settle down on several pieces or even tens simultaneously. Nodules are often not the same in size and shape.

Papilloma rarely brings discomfort: in most patients, education is associated only with a cosmetic defect.

However, the appearance of papillomas in the genital area represents a considerable danger to the patient's health. The location of the neoplasm on the penis contributes to frequent trauma to the papilloma - this can happen during sexual contact, or even during the shower. An injured nodule is a finding for pathogenic flora, because an additional, fungal or microbial infection can penetrate through the wound.

Among other things, papillomavirus in combination with frequent traumatization of education can lead to malignancy - malignant tumor degeneration. For this reason, it is recommended that when the papilloma is first detected on the penis, consult a doctor immediately. The doctor during the examination can accurately indicate the good quality of nodular education, as well as the possibility and necessity of its removal.

Papilloma on the scalp

Papilloma on the scalp is not immediately apparent, as it usually covers the hairline. However, such education is more likely than others to be traumatized - when combing, shaving or washing your head.

Papilloma on the head can be congenital in nature, or appear later; color - from pale cream to brown, can be placed on a foot or on a wide base. As a result of external damage, the nodule can turn red, bleed, sores or swelling may appear.

You can not scratch, comb or rub the papilloma, because frequent trauma to the tumor can lead to its malignant degeneration. Therefore, the best way is to remove the papilloma: visit the doctor and discuss with him this question. There are a lot of options for removing the tumor on the scalp, and they are all effective. We will talk about this issue below.

Papilloma on the baby's skin

A child can get infected with papillomavirus in different ways:

  • from mother during pregnancy and labor;
  • from family members, if other carriers of the disease live next to them;
  • if the rules of behavior and hygiene are not respected (if the baby gnaws at the nails, pulls out burrs, scratches acne and sores, and does not wash his hands or does it rarely).

According to observations, congenital disease in most cases appears in the mouth or on mucous membranes. If the baby is infected in the home, the papillomas are more often located on the hands, on the fingers, underarms, in the face or on the feet.

If the child has good immunity, then for a long time it can be a carrier of the virus. The disease manifests itself only with a sharp decrease in immunity: after infectious diseases, prolonged use of medicines, with pathology of the digestive system.

In order not to aggravate and not to provoke further development of papillomas, it is necessary to talk with the baby and explain to him some rules:

  • It is impossible to damage the papilloma formed, as this will give impetus to the further spread of the virus;
  • it is necessary to ensure that the area of the papilloma is not injured by clothing, otherwise the formation may increase;
  • In the future, you should monitor the state of immune protection, as well as follow the rules of personal hygiene.

Types of papillomas on the skin

For successful diagnosis it is necessary to know what kinds of papillomas exist on the skin. In fact, there are many such species, not less than a hundred, but we will briefly consider the most common of them:

  • vulgar papilloma - usually forms a small pineal formation, dense when feeling, 0.1 cm or more in size. The most frequent localization is the outside of the hand or knees. The course of such a papilloma can be either prolonged sluggish or violent-aggressive;
  • single papilloma - often occurs unnoticeably and does not bother the patient. When injured or attempted self-removal can grow to large sizes;
  • plantar - such a papilloma has considerable resemblance to a plantar wart, but has a glossy surface. With the development and spread of plantar nodules, they acquire the appearance of standard papillomas. Can be mixed with a mosaic form of papilloma;
  • squamous cell papilloma of the skin - has the shape of a smooth flattened nodule resembling a sphere or polygon. The color does not differ from the usual shade of the skin. At a late stage of the disease can cause unpleasant sensations in the form of itching, soreness, inflammatory phenomena;
  • filiform papilloma - occurs most often. At first, a slight dense formation appears with a yellowish tinge. With development, education tends to increase, it becomes rough to the touch and as if elongated in shape;
  • basal cell papilloma of the skin (keratopapilloma) - occurs more often in the elderly. It is a flat formation on the skin of a yellowish-brown hue, with time changing color to dark (brown). The size of the formations is from 0.1 to 4 cm in diameter. Consistency is more often dense, the form is flat or slightly convex.

In its structure has melanin inclusions.

In addition, skin papillomas can be differentiated and classified according to shape, diameter, etiology. But all of them are formed only on the surface of the skin, do not cause soreness and do not have blood vessels in their structure.

Diagnosis of papillomas on the skin

Diagnosis of papillomas on the skin involved such specialists as a dermatologist or a venereologist. To establish the correct diagnosis, based only on the data of the examination, it is possible only with the classical course of the disease, which is most often impossible due to the difficulties in identifying the virus and determining the degree of malignancy of the formation. For these reasons, doctors often use PCR methods for diagnosing the pathogen DNA.

The PCR method helps to identify the presence of papillomavirus in the patient, to isolate its variety, and also to estimate the number of the virus in the patient's body. These data are needed primarily in order to provide an approximate timeframe for the penetration of the infection in the body and to detect individuals - probable carriers of the virus.

In addition, the PCR method provides data on the course of the disease, which is also very important, because the treatment of a chronic or acute disease has its own characteristics. If the virus manifested itself due to a one-time drop in immune defense, then the doctor's actions should first of all be aimed at increasing immunity.

In the event that a doctor prescribes surgical removal of education, then a biopsy with cytology is performed in combination with him: the pieces of tumor tissues are examined for possible malignancy.

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What do need to examine?

Treatment of papillomas on the skin

There are many options for treating papillomas on the skin, and the best method is determined individually after the patient undergoes diagnostic procedures. If such procedures indicated the presence of papillomavirus, but there are still no visible signs of papilloma, then prophylactic cytostatic therapy may be prescribed. The meaning of such treatment is in the inhibition of the development of the virus, which allows to "postpone" the appearance of papillomas for decades. Persons who are identified as carriers of papillomavirus are recommended to be screened regularly, and use condoms during sexual intercourse (to prevent the spread of infection).

Of the drugs of cytostatic action more often than others are used:

  • Podofillin - damages the viral cell, creates obstacles for the reproduction of the virus, prevents the growth of papillomas;
  • Bleomycin - an antitumor antibiotic, causes the separation of the DNA of the pathogenic cell, which prevents its further vital activity;
  • Fluorouracil - antimetabolite, changes the structure of RNA and inhibits the division of a pathogenic tumor cell;
  • Isoprinosine is an antiviral and immunostimulating drug. Increases the total number of T-lymphocytes, improves the combination of helper cells and suppressors in the blood. It inhibits the reproduction of viral cells, damaging the genetic data of viruses. Enhances the activity of macrophages.

In addition to cytostatics, the use of funds to normalize immune defense is recommended. The appointment of interferons, alloferons is welcomed. Apply aerosol Epigen and liquid Betadin externally.

However, the most radical and effective way to combat papillomas is to remove them.

Removal of papillomas on the skin

Removal of papillomas on the skin is carried out, mainly, with the help of liquid nitrogen, laser, radio waves, or by electrocoagulation. Which method the doctor chooses may depend on the size and type of the lesion.

The method of cryodestruction is a method of freezing a tumor with the help of liquid nitrogen. Low-temperature properties of nitrogen make it possible to freeze all tissues and vessels near the neoplasm. As a result, the tumor is necrotic and can be separated from the surface of the skin. If the papilloma has sprouted deep roots, then it may be necessary to undergo several cryodestruction sessions. The procedure itself is painless, but after it at the stage of healing, there may be slight painful sensations.

The method of electrocoagulation is a method of directing an electric current. With the help of a current, a specialist can suppress the blood supply of a tumor. Small vessels around the formation coagulate, which makes it possible to stop the further spread of the virus. With the procedure, the papilloma can be completely separated, which facilitates its further histological examination.

Laser treatment - perhaps the most effective and painless. Most often, papillomas are eliminated in one procedure. Under the action of the laser, the papilloma cells dry out, and the tumor becomes a dry crust (scab). The scab disappears after a couple of days after the procedure.

The method of radio wave surgery is popular not less than laser treatment. Radio waves do not leave after their impact scarring, redness, or puffiness on the skin. The injury site heals quickly enough, without the risk of infection in the tissue. The only drawback of the method is its high cost.

Alternative remedies for papillomas on the skin

Papillomas on the skin - this is a common ailment, and at the moment there are many methods by which people try to fight the disease. An important point before using any alternative methods is to increase the body's defenses: without this, even the most popular treatment can be ineffective. Therefore, use vitamins, eat fresh fruit, citrus fruits, drink freshly squeezed juices, walk in the fresh air, temper, and alternative methods will help you speed up recovery.

  • Use of celandine - a very common remedy for papilloma. The juice of a fresh plant is applied to the formation and sealed with a bactericidal plaster. Thus, you should act daily until the papilloma disappears.
  • Use of garlic. Chop garlic in garlic, or rub it on a grater. On one part of the pressed garlic we take two parts of any cream, it is possible for children. The agent is mixed and applied to the problem site daily, covering with a band-aid or bandage. Ointment is washed off after 3 hours with running water. The course of therapy is from 14 to 30 days.
  • Green unripe nuts are ground in a blender. The nut mass should not be less than 2/3 of the glass liter capacity. In the jar should be topped up with clean kerosene and insist for 20 days in the refrigerator. After this time, the liquid is filtered into a bottle of dark glass. We store in the refrigerator. Lubricate the papillomas twice a day until they disappear completely, as a rule, it takes about 20 days.
  • For the next method, we need potato sprouts, young spruce shoots and a clean plant. Fill the jar with 1 l of 1/3 potato sprouts. Then 1/3 of the jar is the celandine grass. The remaining 1/3 is the spruce young shoots. In the jar we pour alcohol up to the top and let it brew for 2 weeks. Infusion lubricates the formation once a day three times, that is, three times with an interval of 1-2 minutes.
  • You can apply to the papillomas freshly cut leaves of the colanchoe, and, fixing the plaster, leave for the night. As a rule, 10 procedures may be necessary for treatment.

Be careful when using alternative therapies. Do not use these solutions inside and do not let them get on the mucous membranes.

trusted-source[20], [21], [22], [23]

Prevention of papillomas on the skin

Prevention of papillomas on the skin can be used and as additional measures during the treatment of papillomavirus, to prevent relapses.

  • Periodically pass examinations for the virus of papilloma.
  • If you have untreated foci of papillomas, you need to monitor their growth and changes in external forms.
  • It is necessary to avoid accidental sexual contacts, always use barrier methods of protection.
  • It is important to maintain your immunity, properly and fully eat, harden.

There is also a specific prevention of papillomavirus - it's vaccination (vaccination). One of them is the 2-valence serum Cervarix, and the other is the 4 valence serum Gardasil. Vaccination is carried out three times during six months.

Prognosis of papillomas on the skin

The prognosis of papillomas can be favorable in case of timely contact with a doctor. Long-standing papillomas, which are often amenable to injury and damage, have a high risk of malignancy - malignancy of the process. If you have a papilloma, monitor its growth and development, notice any changes in its shape, color, size, quantity, etc. When making changes, tell your doctor immediately.

Strengthen immunity: in a state of strong immune defense, the chances of the virus to manifest themselves are extremely small. Strong immunity will contain the activity of the virus for several years and even more.

If the papillomas on the skin do not cause you discomfort, then you do not need to delete them at all. However, before deciding on treatment or inaction regarding the tumor, be sure to consult your doctor.

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