Causes of Ischemic Stroke
The cause of ischemic stroke is the reduction of cerebral blood flow as a result of lesions of the main vessels of the neck and artery of the brain in the form of stenosis and occlusive lesions.
The main etiological factors that lead to a decrease in blood flow are:
- Atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic stenoses and occlusions of the zkrastrakranialnyh arteries of the neck and large arteries of the base of the brain;
- arterio-arterial embolism from thrombotic layers on the surface of an atherosclerotic plaque or resulting from its disintegration, which leads to occlusion of the intracranial arteries with atheromatous emboli;
- cardiogenic embolism (in the presence of artificial heart valves, atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiac iopathy, myocardial infarction, etc.);
- hyalinosis of small arteries, which leads to the development of microangiopathy and the formation of lacunar cerebral infarction;
- stratification of the walls of the main arteries of the neck;
- hemorheological changes in the blood (with vasculitis, coagulopathy).
Significantly less often, the cause of disturbance of carotid patency is cicatricial traumatic and external inflammatory vascular lesions, fibro-muscular dysplasia, as well as pathological bends, and vascular loops.
Occlusion of vertebral arteries in most cases is observed in a place from walking them from the subclavian arteries.
In addition to the sclerotic process, the cause of stenosis of vertebral arteries is often osteophytes, which are formed in the osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
Stenosis and thrombosis of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries occur, as a rule, on the site of branching of the internal carotid artery.
When the vessels of the carotid artery system are affected, cerebral infarction often develops, and in the vertebro-basilar basin - mainly transient disorders of cerebral circulation.
Ischemic stroke - Causes and pathogenesis