A neuropathologist is an expert who conducts the prevention and treatment of various disorders, diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Such a specialist is necessary for frequent headaches and dizziness, with cerebrovascular diseases, after head injuries, in disorders of the peripheral and central nervous systems, with frequent loss of consciousness, with Parkinson's disease.
The human brain and spinal cord control completely all systems and organs of the human body. Their state depends on how a person sees, hears, speaks, perceives the surrounding world, realizes himself, etc. Stress, fatigue, irritability are all conditions that are a pathology for the body and for preventing severe conditions associated with nervous disorders, it is very important to get a timely consultation of a neurologist.
In modern conditions it is extremely important to take care of one's own health. Pain is the first signal of the body that any disturbance occurs in the work, this signal can not be ignored. When there is pain in the back, taking painkillers will not bring the desired effect, such funds will help only at the time to eliminate the pain, but not the cause of its appearance. Back pain is one of the most common reasons for contacting a neurologist, however, there are a number of other symptoms that need to be considered. Symptoms that may indicate possible CNS problems are: severe headaches (frequent or arising from time to time), loss of consciousness, vision, speech, dizziness, tinnitus, various sleep disorders, seizures, a constant sense of fatigue or weakness.
Who is a neurologist?
Neuropathologist in his practice conducts treatment of diseases of the nervous system (CNS, peripheral nerves). The specialist is usually treated after a stroke, with osteochondrosis, visual impairment, hearing, sensitivity, headaches, etc.
The specialist, when referring to him, first of all determines the cause of the disturbances in the work of the organism, establishes the lesion and the degree of lesion of the nervous system, and then appoints the appropriate treatment.
When should I go to a neurologist?
Seeking the help of a neuropathologist is necessary in cases of indispositions, such as intolerance to stuffiness, various loads, changes in blood pressure, a feeling of constant fatigue, decreased attention, increased sweating, sleep disturbances, increased anxiety.
The neuropathologist helps to find and eliminate the cause of frequent headaches, dizziness, mood swings, tinnitus or in the head.
What diagnostic methods does the neurologist use?
After the initial examination of the patient, the neurologist prescribes standard tests - a general analysis of blood and urine. Then, in each individual case, the specialist decides whether additional research is needed or not.
The neurologist uses the following diagnostic methods in his work:
electroneuromyography - a set of methods that are aimed at assessing the functional state of the neuromuscular system. With this diagnostic procedure, a nerve impulse is sent along the sensory and motor fibers of the peripheral nerves;
electroencephalography - allows you to determine the functional state of the brain, the existing focal lesions, their severity and location, the reactivity of the central nervous system, etc .;
rheoencephalography - allows to evaluate cerebral circulation;
echoencephaloscopy - this neurophysiological and ultrasound diagnosis allows evaluation of pathological processes in the substance of the brain;
Radiography of the skull, spine - X-ray examination of the bones of the skull, spine. The method is widely used in psychoneurological practice with deformities, changes in the size of the skull, cranial cerebral herbs, cerebral symptoms;
myelography - is a contrast radiographic examination of the spine, in which a contrast medium is injected into the spinal canal, which allows the doctor to evaluate the structure of the subarachnoid space and nerve roots. Usually, this method of research is prescribed for pathologies of the spinal cord;
pneumoencephalography is also a contrast X-ray study, in which air is injected into the cerebral CSF. The method is widely used for anomalies in the development of the nervous system, diagnosis of tumors, and the like. Usually, pneumoencephalography is performed in combination with a diagnostic puncture;
Computed tomography is the most effective and informative method of modern diagnostics. A special X-ray machine allows to obtain a cut image of almost any area under investigation. Usually, this method of investigation is assigned to confirm the pathology identified by another diagnostic method;
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - with the help of radio waves and a special magnetic field, high-quality images are obtained that help in the diagnosis of many diseases. Usually, the study is prescribed for disorders of brain activity, for the detection of tumors, etc .;
positron emission tomography (PET) - is a modern and most accurate method for diagnosing neurological, cardiac and oncological diseases;
angiography is a contrast radiographic examination of blood vessels, this method is used mainly to study blood flow and diagnose vascular disease or adjacent tissue.
What does a neuropathologist do?
The neuropathologist deals with the treatment of diseases associated with the nervous system, which is divided into the central (head and spinal cord) and peripheral (other nerves).
Each disease usually has its own symptoms, peculiar only to it. The most common symptom that accompanies most of the diseases of the nerves and the nervous system is pain. Usually these are headaches, pains in the neck, back, limbs.
Pain in the neck is a signal that requires increased attention. First of all, because there passes the spinal cord and there is a large number of spinal roots, the inflammation or clamping of which causes the disease of the peripheral nervous system (radiculitis).
Pain in the lower back, spine, thoracic region can occur with osteochondrosis, radiculitis.
Pain in the extremities (arms and legs) can arise for a number of reasons. In this case, first of all, you should contact a neurologist. Since this may be due to pathological conditions of the peripheral nerves. If, in addition to painful sensations, there is a feeling of numbness or hypersensitivity, muscle weakness is a neurologist, this is a doctor to be treated first.
Particular attention should be given to muscle weakness, which is a very important symptom. In this case, one muscle on the face has weakened, or completely the hand does not matter, one should immediately seek the help of a specialist, since such a condition indicates a severe neurologic disease.
Usually, the doctor makes a preliminary diagnosis after the initial examination of the patient. The main causes of numbness of the extremities or paralysis of the nerves on the face are neuritis of the facial nerve, neuroinfections, hemorrhages, strokes, hereditary diseases or malignant central nervous system, autoimmune diseases.
Vertigo is the main reason why a neurologist needs consultation. At the admission specialist establishes the existing pathology of the neck vessels or lesions of certain areas of the brain.
If there is double vision in the eyes, strabismus arises, vision problems are an urgent reason to contact a neurologist, all these symptoms almost always indicate organic lesions of the central nervous system.
What diseases are treated by a neurologist?
The diseases that the neurologist deals with are related to the nervous system. Violation of the central nervous system and peripheral nerves can cause various head injuries, radiculitis, osteochondrosis and its complications, intervertebral hernias. Also, disorders of the cerebral circulation, strokes, and CNS tumors can disrupt the functions of the nervous system.
Dangerous symptoms that require specialist intervention are frequent and severe headaches, migraines, dizziness, loss of consciousness, epileptic seizures, sleep disorders, tinnitus.
The neurologist treats such organs as the brain and spinal cord, nerves, spine, thalamus.
Advices of a neurologist
Most of the problems that are addressed to a neurologist are related to the spine. To avoid the development of serious diseases, the neuropathologist recommends giving special attention to your bed, it is on its convenience that the condition of the back depends. The mattress should meet the physiological characteristics of the spine, so it is equally harmful to sleep both on the bare wooden board and on the feather pillows.
The bed should be rigid in moderation, it is important to take into account the person's weight - the more weight, the stiffer the mattress should be. It is also harmful to sleep on too large pillows, in this case the head is in the wrong position, which leads to edema of the neck muscles.
To have a good rest, it is necessary to take care of a comfortable position during sleep. Some people prefer to sleep on their stomachs, after which they notice that the lower back begins to hurt in the morning. In this case, you can put a small pillow under your stomach.
When osteochondrosis, when it is difficult to find a suitable position, you can put a wooden shield on the bed, on which you put 5-8 cm foam rubber and a blanket, preferably woolen.
If you are concerned about giving pain to the leg, it is recommended to place a roller (or pillow) wrapped from a rug or towel under the knee to reduce stretching of the sciatic nerve, and also to remove soreness.
Before you go to bed in the morning, you need to reach out well to one side and the other, then sit for about a minute with your feet lowered on the floor and then go up.
A neuropathologist will not only help in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with nerves, but will recommend effective preventive methods that will help prevent a range of neurological diseases. The main thing is to seek the help of a specialist in a timely manner, in this case the chances of completely getting rid of the disease are increased.
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
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