A neurologist is a specialist associated with neurology - a special section of medicine, the subject of which are diseases of the nervous system (both central and peripheral).
Therefore, the question "Who is a neurologist?" Can be answered in the following way: this is a doctor who received a higher medical education and completed a specialization in neurology. It is designed to carry out diagnostics, treatment and prevention of various diseases of the brain and spinal cord, as well as the peripheral nervous system at a high professional level. First and foremost, such a specialist studies the causes and reveals the mechanisms of the development of a disease, establishes its symptoms, determines the methods of diagnosis, and then assigns the best methods for treating the diagnosed disease. In addition, the competence of a neurologist is the appointment of effective preventive measures aimed at strengthening the health of the human nervous system.
It should be noted that in our time the concepts of "neurologist" and "neuropathologist" are identical and do not have any differences in meaning. This is one and the same specialist, whose work is associated with the identification of pathologies, disorders and the treatment of all kinds of diseases associated with the activity of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and nerve fibers and plexuses.
When should I go to a neurologist?
The neurologist is obliged to help you in the event that in the body there are disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system.
Many people are interested in the question "When should I go to a neurologist?" That is, what signs should indicate the need to seek help from this specialist? First of all, the following symptoms should be noted:
periodic syncope and fainting;
dizziness, headaches and general weakness;
convulsions and tics;
lethargy of limbs;
numbness of certain areas of the body;
noise in the head and ears;
insomnia, sleep disorders;
memory impairment and concentration of attention;
deterioration of sight, hearing and smell;
The reason for the visit to the neurologist is also a head injury and any craniocerebral injury, tk. Their consequences usually appear after a period of time and can lead to serious complications.
The reason for experiencing may be attacks of nausea and vomiting, not related to food intake, as well as changes in speech and voice, violation of urination, as well as movements in the legs and hands, fears and obsessions. When one of these signs is observed, it is necessary to contact the neurologist as soon as possible to avoid the risks associated with the development of serious diseases, such as, for example, a brain tumor, which requires immediate transportation of the patient to a hospital for further examination and possible surgical intervention.
What tests should I take when I contact a neurologist?
The neurologist will help diagnose the disease of the nervous system, and also prescribe the most optimal methods of its treatment. During the appointment, the doctor usually conducts a neurological examination of the patient, and also questions him about complaints, symptoms, duration and features of the course of the disease, finds out about the presence of concomitant ailments, and is interested in the patient's way of life and his hereditary predispositions.
What tests should I take when I contact a neurologist? Basically, all the necessary tests and examinations the doctor appoints after examining the patient. In addition to a general blood test, indicating the state of the body as a whole, the patient may need to do a number of additional examinations. It all depends on what kind of symptoms are observed in the development of the disease. Also, the hereditary factor is important, and tests may be needed to establish the patient's predisposition to certain neurological diseases.
Upon examination, the neurologist will check the patient's reflexes and determine the therapeutic measures to prescribe additional tests and tests. For example, in addition to giving a general blood test, the patient may need ultrasound dopplerography of the neck and head, or electroencephalography (EEG), as well as myography (electroneuromyography) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Often, in order to identify the causes of the disease, the patient needs additional studies in the form of otoacoustic emission, hearing tests, or examination of visual fields. If necessary, the doctor can also appoint a radiograph of the spinal column.
What diagnostic methods does the neurologist use?
The neurologist specializes in the detection of neurological diseases and prescribes optimal methods of treatment in order to get rid of the symptoms that prevent the patient from leading a full-fledged, healthy life.
What diagnostic methods does the neurologist use? In modern medicine, ultrasound is widely used to detect the slightest disturbances in the work of the internal organs of man. In addition to ultrasound, a doctor can send a patient to a computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, electroencephalography, electroneuromyography, radiography. Among other methods of diagnosing diseases of the nervous system, it is possible to identify laboratory methods (eg, lumbar puncture). One of the main ways to obtain information for diagnosing a disease is to interview a patient.
Among the methods of treatment of neurological diseases, it is possible to distinguish medication, drug-free, physical and surgical methods. Accordingly, with medical treatment, the neurologist appoints the patient the necessary medications. Non-pharmacological treatment includes diet, phytotherapy, acupuncture, as well as methods of alternative medicine, reflexology and manual therapy, therapeutic massage. The physical method of treatment of neurological diseases is reduced to the use of various sets of exercises and physiotherapy procedures: magnetotherapy, laser therapy, diadynamic therapy, myostimulation, electrophoresis. With the progression of the disease, despite the use of other medications, the patient needs surgical intervention. Neurosurgeons perform various operations, both on the brain and spinal cord, as well as on nerve fibers.
What does a neurologist do?
The neurologist must have high medical knowledge from the field of neurology in order to correctly diagnose the disease of the nervous system and to prescribe the most effective treatment with the goal of prompt recovery of the patient.
What does a neurologist do specifically? Its task is to diagnose a disease directly related to malfunctions in the work of the central and peripheral nervous systems of a person, and to engage in its treatment. To this kind of diseases are various deviations in the work of the brain and spinal cord, as well as of the nervous plexuses. These are neuritis, neuralgia, encephalitis, epilepsy, strokes, tumors and various circulatory disorders in the brain, as well as other diseases. Most often, the development of the ailment is preceded by changes in the mental state of the patient and his behavior. In such cases, other specialists, such as a psychiatrist or a psychotherapist, should be involved in the medical examination to establish an accurate diagnosis of the disease. It should be noted that the neurologist deals exclusively with the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of diseases of the nervous system that are not associated with disorders or changes in the human psyche.
The neurologist is treated by patients suffering from pain in the back, neck, thoracic spine, headaches, dizziness attacks, as well as having symptoms of VSD, depression, obsessive conditions, neuroses, perinatal encephalopathy, polyneuropathy, etc. Patients of the neurologist are also those who have attention deficit disorder, various peripheral nerve injuries, suffer from joint diseases, tics, conditions of increased anxiety.
At the reception the doctor has the opportunity to assess the functional state of the nervous system of the patient, thereby revealing any disturbances in electrical activity of different parts of the nervous system of the body. For example, the method of electroencephalography helps to identify and fix seizures, and the method of electromyography is used to assess the state of the patient's muscles.
These neurological examinations are usually supplemented with laboratory blood test results, which give an opportunity to determine the general health of the patient.
The most common symptom, which is the reason for a visit to a neurologist, is a headache. It is established that 75% of the entire population of our planet periodically suffer from a headache of various etiologies. Often people do not even try to understand the true causes of its occurrence and take analgesics uncontrollably. Chronic character of headaches is most often caused by stress, depression, various kinds of hormonal disorders, vascular changes in the body, atherosclerosis, diseases of the musculoskeletal system. A total of about 50 diseases associated with the main, and sometimes the only symptom - a headache. Therefore, it is so important to establish the reasons for its occurrence in time, referring to an experienced neurologist.
What diseases are treated by a neurologist?
The neurologist deals with various diseases of the nervous system, the result of which, most often to this day, are chronic ailments, deterioration of the overall ecological situation in the world, stressful situations, sedentary lifestyle and other negative factors. With age, the risk of developing neurological diseases usually increases, but over the past decades there has been a tendency to "rejuvenate" them. First of all, it is connected with the way of life of modern people, which leads to a general deterioration of the body, a decrease in immunity, changes in the work of internal systems and human organs.
What diseases are treated by a neurologist? Often, this medical specialist is treated with osteochondrosis, symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia, the negative consequences of craniocerebral trauma, herniated intervertebral disc, complaints of headaches and frequent migraines, dizziness, as well as insomnia, impaired concentration and sleep. Among the patients of a neurologist you can meet people with so-called. "Chronic fatigue syndrome", back pain, neuritis, memory and sleep disorders, "noises" in the ears and head, pinch of the sciatic nerve, hypertensive encephalopathy.
A neurologist is required to diagnose and treat many neurological diseases, such as neuralgia, sciatica, lumbago, sciatica, Alzheimer's disease, discirculatory encephalopathy (insufficiency of blood circulation in the brain of a chronic nature), stroke, brain tumors, and encephalitis and polyneuropathies, Parkinson's disease.
A problem of a neuropathological nature that is very actual and widespread in our time is a malfunction in the work of the autonomic nervous system of man. Various epidemiological studies conducted in the conditions of the modern city, show that to date, vegetative disorders are manifested in 65% of the population of our country. Among the main symptoms of VSD can be noted the following: chronic fatigue and muscle weakness, headache, hypotension or instability of blood pressure, cardiac rhythm disturbances, anxiety, irritability, dizziness. In patients with vegetative-vascular disorders, chest pains, pre-fainting conditions and fainting, emotional instability, impaired concentration, noise in the head and ears, hyperhidrosis, hyperventilation disorders, panic attacks are also observed.
It should be noted that the nature of the nervous system is very diverse. They are based on violations of the activity and interrelation of neurons, as well as various inflammatory processes that occur in the brain, spinal cord and nerve fibers.
Often, neurological diseases are accompanied by symptoms that signal violations of the human psyche. In this case, the intervention of the therapist is required in the examination and treatment of the patient.
Advices of a neurologist
The neurologist understands that the treatment of neurological diseases requires, first of all, an integrated approach and very often takes the patient for a long period of time. Therefore, specialists in this field of medicine advise each person to remember that any disease of the nervous system is easier to cure at the initial stage. That is why it is so important not to postpone the visit to the doctor if there is a slightest symptom indicating a malfunction in the functioning of the organism, in particular the nervous system.
What are the main advice of a neurologist? First of all, they concern observance of rules of a healthy way of life and refusal of bad habits. Moderate physical activity, physical activity, regular exercise, daily walks in the open air contribute not only to the normal operation of nerves and vessels, but also to the overall health support.
The most important factor of a strong nervous system is a correct, balanced diet. Each person's diet should contain many useful micronutrients, vitamins, and omega-acids. To do this, you need to enter into the daily diet of fruits and vegetables, eggs, nuts, vegetable oils and fatty fish. Eliminate harmful food, give preference to natural products that will satiate the body and will benefit him.
Just for the emergence and development of neurological diseases can become stress, the complexity of mutual understanding in family life, problems at work, etc. Initially, the manifestation of a neurosis may be subtle, but gradually it will begin to disrupt the habitual course of a person's life and lead to a neurologist. Do not let this process take its course and self-medicate, so you will waste a lot of time in vain. To successfully get rid of the disease, it is necessary to contact an experienced neurologist as early as possible, who will prescribe a timely treatment. Modern methods of diagnosis can identify the disease at an early stage, so that the treatment started on time will give positive results in the shortest possible time.
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Neurotraumatologist is a specialist who deals with patients with acute injuries of the brain and spinal cord, nervous system, and also eliminates the consequences of such traumas (hematomas, bruises, brain abscesses, poorly located bone fragments, deformities of the skull, etc.).