About what is demodicosis of the scalp, and whether it is possible to fight this disease, we'll talk in this article.
Quite often, the cause of dandruff, irritation and flaking of the skin, as well as hair loss is demodicosis of the head. Demodekoz does not appear on its own: the disease is provoked by microscopic mites-pits, or insects of the genus Demodex. Parasites can live in the skin, glandular and follicular system of hair, comfortably multiplying and feeding on skin secretions and exfoliated epithelial cells.
According to scientific research, it is proved that a tick-iron can be found in almost any healthy person. However, the development of demodicosis can begin only when the tick creates optimal conditions for reproduction. Most often this happens when lowering the local immune defense of the skin: in such a situation, the parasite has the ability to penetrate deeply into the layers of the skin.
In addition to the state of immune forces, the physiology of the skin plays an important role: the function of the sebaceous glands, the composition of sebaceous secretion, the accompanying pathology of the skin, the dependence on the hormonal balance, etc. The external effect on the scalp is also of considerable importance. For example, demodicosis can develop in women who too often use various chemical reagents and aggressive cosmetics for hair and skin.
As we have already said, the mite settles in the depth of the skin, where it is able to actively multiply and allocate larvae to the outside. If you try to remove manifestations of demodicosis yourself, then on fingers and hands it is possible to spread the pathogen practically throughout the body.
According to recent experimental studies, it is possible to briefly characterize the development of demodecosis. Tick-iron in the process of life emits special enzyme substances that can affect the composition of human skin fat. In particular, a specific substance is released that provokes swelling of the skin. If local immunity works, then swelling is stopped. With a decrease in immune defense, as well as an increase in the number of parasites to three dozen in one sebaceous gland, a person has clinical demodicosis symptoms.
What could be the reasons for demodicosis of the head, or, in other words, what can provoke active multiplication of the tick:
long-term treatment with hormonal drugs and antibiotics;
illiterately chosen cosmetics;
malnutrition, with the predominance of sweets and chemical ingredients (preservatives, dyes, stabilizers, etc.);
abuse of strong coffee and tea;
excessive use of salty foods (chips, crackers, nuts), pepper;
frequent smoking and drinking;
too frequent chemical effects on the scalp.
The Demodex mite can be transferred from one carrier to another, both with household items, and through handshakes and other direct contacts. However, this does not mean that the sick person should be isolated from society. Let us repeat once again that the causative agent of the disease is present on the skin of almost all people, but demodicosis of the scalp develops only when conditions favorable for its vital activity are created.
Symptoms of the demodectic head
In most patients, demodectic symptoms appear in the head region, although the development of the process on the chest and upper back is not ruled out.
Demodecosis often occurs on the head due to the fact that the most active sebaceous glands are located here, which react very sensitively to changes in immunity, hormonal balance and the general state of the body. Among the main sites, most often prone to demodicosis, you can identify the area of the nose, forehead, upper eyelids and the scalp.
Symptoms of head demodicosis begin with the appearance of a rosacea-resistant erythema, in which there is swelling and redness of the skin surface. Simultaneously with rosacea, acne, nodules, pustules (pink acne rashes) and telangiectasias appear in large numbers.
The most typical pattern is demodecosis:
stable redness of the skin;
the appearance of a rash on the face and scalp, in the form of papules (nodules), pustules (vesicles with purulent contents), acne or acne;
densification of skin on the affected area;
appearance of a visible vascular network;
itching, irritation, stiffness of the skin.
Demodecosis of the scalp may be manifested by the appearance of abundant dandruff, itching, acne on the skin in the hair growth zone. Often such a phenomenon is observed in endocrine disorders (for example, in the climacteric period, when taking hormonal contraceptives), with hypovitaminosis, psychoemotional stress, alcohol abuse.
Since a tick-iron can be found in almost any person, when diagnosing demodicosis, the head is not paying attention to the presence of a parasite, but to its number. For this reason, several diagnostic methods have been developed, each of which has its pluses and minuses. The choice of the diagnostic method is determined by the doctor individually.
The advantages of the method
Disadvantages of the method
Soskob from the affected area of the skin.
Allows you to estimate the affected area and calculate per surface unit.
It is impossible to estimate the number of parasites that are inside the sebaceous gland.
Analysis of sebaceous glands.
The parasites that are inside the sebaceous gland are squeezed out.
The integrity of the skin is damaged, it is impossible to estimate the entire surface area.
Surface biopsy method: a special adhesive substance is applied to a clean glass, by means of which glass is glued to the affected area of the skin for 60 seconds. As the sticky substance dries, the superficial epithelium and elements of the contents of the sebaceous glands remain on it.
In this way, it is possible to obtain an analysis from different zones and surfaces, and then to calculate the extent of the lesion.
Sometimes on some areas of the head the application of this method is impossible.
Method of skin biopsy with further histology.
You can extract the contents of the sebaceous gland.
The integrity of the skin is damaged, it is difficult to assess the condition of a large surface.
Analysis of extracted cilia and hair.
The only diagnostic procedure to detect ticks in the hair follicle.
Sometimes the procedure may be accompanied by some pain.
In 90% of cases for the treatment of demodicosis of the head, it is not enough to use only local drugs. The treatment should be aimed, first, at eradicating the Demodex mite and eliminating the causes of irritation of the cutaneous and hairline, and secondly, strengthening the body's immune defenses, and stabilizing the trophic and metabolic processes in the skin.
Treatment of demodicosis of the head begins with the elimination of the causes of the fall of immunity. Depending on the indications, stabilization of the psychoemotional state, elimination of hypovitaminosis, elimination of alcohol dependence, correction of nutrition can be carried out. Much attention is paid to nerve and endocrine disorders (the development of demodicosis during sexual development, menopause, with the use of contraceptive hormonal drugs or in violation of the function of the ovaries). Simultaneously, the treatment of chronic foci of infection in the body, which also have a significant effect on the state of immune protection.
To directly affect the tick, most experts recommend using metronidazole (trichopolum), inside 0.25 g twice daily, during or immediately after meals. Duration of therapy - up to 6 weeks, and after 14-20 days the course is recommended to be repeated. Metronidazole causes the death of tick-iron, affecting the muscular system of the parasite. The drug, as a rule, is well tolerated by patients. Side effects in the form of loss of appetite, headache, dryness in the mouth, are rare. In the intervals between therapeutic courses, it is recommended to take purified sulfur inside 500 mg twice a day with food. Sometimes tinidazole (fazijin) is prescribed in the amount of 4 tablets per day, for 5 days, and 250 mg of hingamine twice a day, 3 to 5 courses for 5 days, with breaks of 3 days.
During treatment, patients are advised to avoid exposure to sunlight. With increased sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet, injections of nicotinic acid and resorcinol 250 mg twice daily are prescribed.
In the presence of abscesses and the adhesion of pyoderma, antibiotics (tetracycline, erythromycin, levomycetin) can be administered simultaneously with antifungal agents.
In order to strengthen the immunity appoint drugs containing iron, calcium, phosphorus, xanthinal nicotinate, multivitamin preparations. Vitamins of group B, vitamin C, nicotinic and folic acid, Aevit, brewer's yeast are especially popular for the treatment of demodectic.
Depending on the indications, tranquilizers and sedatives (sedatives) may be prescribed.
In chronic and often recurring demodicosis, immunotherapeutic measures are used: autohemotherapy, levamisole, etc.
Nutrition plays a huge role in the successful and complete treatment of demodicosis. From the daily menu it is necessary to exclude sharp, sweet, salty and smoked dishes, as well as alcoholic beverages. Do not be advised to drink or eat too hot food to prevent the tides of blood to face. Do not overeat. We welcome the use of dairy products, vegetables and fruits, herbs and berries. The most approximate diet is a treatment table number 5.
External treatment of head demodicosis can consist of the use of medicines and special shampoos. Of the medicines, the scalp is recommended to be treated with 20% benzyl benzoate, sulfur ointment, ichthyol ointment, Wilkinson ointment. Mandatory disinfection of bed and hygienic supplies of the patient (bed linen, pillow, towels).
What to wash your head with demodicosis?
We discussed the general principles of the treatment of head demodectomy. Next, I would like to list the most popular and effective means for washing your head and rubbing your face. Than to wash a head at a demodecosis:
tar soap - the ingredients of such soap suppress the vital functions of the sternum, while simultaneously cleaning and nourishing the skin;
drug mixture - "talker": mix 100 g of dimime, 100 g of distilled water, 10 milled tablets of trichopole, 10 milled tablets of levomycetin, 10 milled tablets of nystatin. Stir and wet the affected surfaces twice a day for 14 days;
Spregal - a special drug that damages the nervous system of ticks. Sold in pharmacies. Ingredients: esbiol, piperonyl and additional ingredients. The drug should be applied to the skin, avoiding the treatment of the hair. Washing is allowed not earlier than 12 hours after treatment. The course of therapy - from one to 2 weeks.
A good result is the washing of the skin and hair with a contrast shower, cool grass infusions, watermelon juice, cucumber, lime flowers and chamomile.
Shampoo from demodectic head
It is rather difficult to quickly cure demodicosis of the head, since it is difficult to ensure the ingestion of medicinal preparations into hard-to-reach places on the hairline. A shampoo, specially designed to combat mites-pathogens of the disease, can completely treat the hair and affected skin.
Before you apply this or that shampoo from demodicosis, you need to consider some factors:
one shampoo will not be enough to get rid of the tick. It is necessary to fully treat demodicosis, using both external and internal drugs;
The greatest activity of ticks is manifested in the dark, so treatment of the skin and hair is better planned for the evening.
Now consider the most popular types of shampoos, which are aimed at eliminating the symptoms of demodicosis, destroying parasites and restoring the affected skin and hair.
Therapeutic shampoo Demodex Complex - significantly reduces the number of parasites, cleanses the skin from the scales of the epidermis. It can be used both for the treatment of demodectic and for its prevention.
Shampoo Stop Demodex - eliminates signs of irritation and inflammation of the skin, depressing the development of mites and some fungi on the skin. Stop Demodex is applied to wet hair, massaged, washed with water and applied again, leaving for a few minutes for more effective exposure. After this, again abundantly washed with clean water.
Shampoo Demodex Ovante - American therapeutic and prophylactic line. This shampoo contains natural ingredients: sulfur, zinc, extracts from eucalyptus, birch, celandine, beech, tea tree, as well as a complex of vitamins and natural oils. Due to natural components, Demoeks Ovante does not provoke the development of allergies and has no contraindications to use. Shampoo is used daily at night, for 14-28 days.
Shampoo Manting on vegetable basis, production of China. Prevents the growth and reproduction of the tick of demodekoz, relieves the consequences of their life, has a general restoring effect on the roots of hair and scalp.
For best effect, all shampoos should be used regularly, daily, in conjunction with other external means prescribed by a dermatologist.
Treatment of head demodectomy with alternative means
Often, along with traditional methods of treatment, the treatment of head demodectomy using alternative means is used. We will tell you about the most popular techniques now.
Use kerosene to lubricate and wash the skin. Kerosene is applied to the affected skin for three days, and only after that it can be washed off. What does this method give? Kerosene creates a dense film on the skin that blocks the tick from accessing oxygen, from which it dies. This method can not be used on irritated and inflamed skin, as this can aggravate the condition.
Use of birch tar in addition to various ointments, creams, home-made shampoos. Tar helps to get rid of not only demodecosis, but also from psoriasis and eczema.
The use of body-water (you can buy in a pharmacy) to eliminate skin and inflammation.
You can prepare the following mask of components that can be purchased in almost any pharmacy: take the calendula tincture and Demalon ointment. In the morning, rinse the affected skin with clean water and pat the towel. After 15 minutes, we put on the skin tincture, and after 5 minutes - a small amount of Demalon. Do not wash your skin until evening. In the evening we wash the place of the lesion, rub it with infusion without applying ointment. Thus, it is necessary to repeat the treatment daily for at least a month.
In addition, it is recommended to wash the hair and scalp with infusions of eucalyptus and juniper berries, decoction of the buckthorn bark, infusion of bitter wormwood, a solution of chopped garlic, infusion of elecampane. For oral administration, infusions and herbal teas are recommended with the addition of mint, nettle, plantain, string, etc.
As a preventive measure of demodicosis, as well as to prevent repeated infection with mites, it is necessary to observe the rules of personal hygiene, not to use other people's bathing and bedding. It is important to maintain the body's immunity: do not tolerate hypovitaminosis, fully eat, timely treat chronic and acute diseases, dysbiosis, metabolic disorders.
A pillow for sleeping is preferable with synthetic fillers, since in the feather pillows gradual accumulation of the Demodex mite occurs.
Pillow cases and towels should be ironed as often as possible.
Scrub and peeling for the skin is not recommended to use more than once a week, as this violates the natural skin protection and temporarily lowers the local immunity.
At night you can wash with tar soap.
In the winter-autumn season, it is recommended to use vitamin preparations with selenium and zinc.
It is recommended to abandon bad habits (smoking and drinking alcohol), do not overwork, eat fully, avoid overcooling and overheating of the skin. Summer should wear darkened sunglasses and a hat.
If in your immediate environment there is a patient with demodicosis, you should adhere to special rules of sanitation and hygiene. Bath and bedding of the patient must be washed at t ° not less than + 75 ° C. Pillows must be replaced by synthetic ones, with obligatory periodical washing at t ° + 40 ° C. During washing, you can add special acaricidal additives, such as "Akaril" or "Allergoff".
Demodecosis of the head is a complex disease associated with the defeat of the tick-parasite and a decrease in the body's defenses. Therefore, the fight against the disease must also be complex, with an impact on the pathogen both from the outside and from the inside. Combination of various drugs, local treatment, strengthening of the body's immune forces, as well as complete adherence to the treatment scheme will necessarily lead to a positive result.
Последнее обновление: 26.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
A subcutaneous tick is a parasite that is located inside or just below the skin layer, as well as inside the appendages of the skin and causes changes in its structure, in connection with its vital activity.