Every person on his body notices dark pigmented spots - moles. In some people, they are single, and for someone, there are whole placers of dissimilar markers, differing in size and structure. Sometimes a person is born with a birthmark, and many specks can appear throughout life. These marks can bring certain cosmetic inconveniences, and their changes are a symptom of dangerous diseases.
What is a mole?
Scientists in the field of medicine use the term nevus to designate a mole. Unlike birthmarks, nevi are not congenital. A mole is a small spot that appears throughout the life cycle on any part of the human body, visually visible on the surface of the skin. It contains pigment melanin and melanocyte cells. When the mole is located in the upper epidermal tissues of the skin, its shape will be flat. The pigmented segment, located in deep dermal tissues, will be slightly elevated above the skin.
The color spectrum of shades of moles - from light coffee to almost black shade. The coloration directly depends on the amount of melanin pigment produced by specialized cells (melanocytes).
Flat or convex nevi do not conceal a threat if:
they are evenly colored, have straight contours, small size (no more than 5 mm),
do not tend to increase the area or volume and are not injured.
Moles, from which hairs grow, have a minimal chance of turning into melanoma. In addition to the possibility of malignancy, moles can become inflamed.
Why did the birthmark inflame and what to do? This question often worries people who notice the changes that have occurred with the nevus.
Birthmarks are poorly protected from external stimuli. There are many factors that provoke inflammation, which in turn leads to pain.
Causes of inflammation of a birthmark
Factors contributing to the occurrence of inflammation of moles are as follows:
exposure to UV irradiation during prolonged exposure to bright sunlight (especially for people with white skin);
various injuries (scrapes, cuts).
In these cases, the "gateway" is opened for infection in the nevus. Itching, soreness, swelling, the appearance of redness, peeling - a symptomatology of the inflammation. Bloody discharge and intense reddening of the skin around the pigmented spot are visual signs of a possible transformation of the nevus into a malignant tumor.
Each of these symptoms is a reason to seek advice from an oncologist. Confirmation of the presence of melanoma is a good reason for the immediate removal of the mole.
Moles on the human body can be classified according to different parameters: size, shape, localization in skin tissues and the like.
According to the occupied area, all non -oidal formations are differentiated into:
Small (diameter up to 15 mm).
Medium (size from 15 to 100 mm).
Large (more than 100 mm in diameter).
Giant - occupy a certain part of the body (face, chest, hand, etc.).
Small moles do not carry danger and the risk of their transformation into malignant formations is minimal. Malignancy of giant nevi reaches 50%. In the presence of a dangerous neoplasm it is necessary to observe a dermatologist or oncologist. In childhood, the appearance of moles is associated with the migration of pigment cells from deep tissues to the surface of the epidermis.
Depending on the form and origin of the non -oid pathology, they are divided into:
Hemangiomas - point or bulk spots on the skin, involving the process of tissue of the vascular wall, having an uneven edge. Color features depend on the type of blood vessel from which they formed (different shades of pink and red colors).
Capillary angiomas. Flat red spots on the surface of the epidermis, bearing a cosmetic defect. Dangers do not bear.
Cavernous angiomas. Multi-cavity formations of vascular origin, knotty or tuberous, cherry-colored, based in the tissues of the skin. Danger of possible heavy bleeding in the event of injury.
Nevus of non-vascular genesis. Pigmented skin formations - from light brown to intense black, having the appearance of various elevations above the surface of the skin.
Doctors-dermatologists diagnose the following types of moles, depending on localization, shape, color and size:
Convex. They are based in deep epidermal tissues, they have the appearance of a smooth or bumpy formation (diameter no more than 10 mm) with the hair growing in it. Color palette from dark yellow to saturated black.
Flat. Pigmented formations (from light to dark shade), consisting of melanocytes and melanin, localized in the upper layers of the epidermis.
Lentigo. A large number of pigment spots of brown or brownish hue. Moles of this species are formed in adolescence or adulthood, passing into a pathological state - letharginosis.
Congenital melanocytic nevus. It looks like a spot of gray, brown or black. Has a tendency to grow as the child grows up.
The blue nevus. The new formation has a hemispherical shape with a diameter of up to 20 mm, which rises above the surface of the epidermis. Color - from light blue to dark cornflower blue. Localization - limbs, face, buttocks.
Dysplastic. It is represented by a group of formations of various shapes and diameters of more than 10 mm, a rusty hue with blurred contours.
Moles according to the risks of malignancy are divided into melanoma and melanoma-safe. Melanoma-sensitive nevi are: blue, dysplastic and congenital melanocytic.
Symptoms of the inflammation of a birthmark
Symptoms of inflammation of a mole:
soreness of the affected area;
Change in the color of the skin surrounding the mole;
The last two points deserve close attention. They can be a signal of the transformation of a benign tumor into a malignant one.
The appearance of redness around the nevus signals an initial stage of the inflammatory process. This symptom can not be ignored. It is necessary to immediately seek advice from a specialist.
To notice the first signs of inflammation of moles on the face, abdomen, limbs is not difficult. It is more difficult to diagnose the inflammatory process of non -oidal formations on areas of the body that are inaccessible to self-examination. In this case, the help of relatives is needed.
At the initial stage of inflammation of a birthmark, the first signs are:
swelling of the site of inflammation;
To prevent symptoms and manifestations of the inflammatory process in the area of the nevus, it is required to carefully and regularly examine the moles. There is a danger of transformation of an inflamed mole into a malignant neoplasm.
Mole inflamed and sore
People often ask the question: why does the inflammation of the mole occur, what is its cause? The inflammatory process in the area of the nevus leads to:
Injuries to moles (thorough hygienic procedures, friction of the birthmark with clothing, insect bites). If you do not give proper attention to the affected birthmark, then the inflammatory reaction can cause deformation of the nevus and provoke its malignancy.
Intense exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In daylight-saving time, open areas of the skin are exposed to intense sunlight. Under their influence inflammation of the mole can occur, and the person will find the appeared symptomatology a manifestation of a sunburn.
If there was inflammation of the skin under the nevoid foci and a detachable one was formed, then this is the manifestation of the introduction of a bacterial or fungal infection. To determine the pathogen, you need to visit the laboratory and make a smear of the contents from the focus of inflammation.
Fertility of the neoplasm. If an inflammation of the mole occurs without an obvious cause, then this can be interpreted as a sign of her malignancy. In this situation it is better to visit the oncologist.
Mole inflamed and blushed
Although moles are benign formations, they deliver a lot of trouble. The main reason for concern is the change in the structure of the birthmark, and especially, the appearance of the red border.
The root causes of the redness of the nevus or the skin around it are mechanical damage or the onset of the malignant process.
The birthmark can be injured by close or rough clothes, a stiff washcloth during hygiene procedures, accidental combing, etc. In these situations, there is a reaction of redness of the mole and the skin surrounding it, and sometimes bleeding occurs. The most injured nevi, located on the neck, chest, back. Men often get injured by birthmarks that are in the face and neck area during shaving. The woman, carrying out the depilation procedure, risks damaging the birthmark located in the axillary region, on the legs, the bikini area.
In all of the above situations, the mole is inflamed, redness and swelling appear. Unreasonable hyperemia of the birthmark accompanies its malignant degeneration.
Redness associated with a sunburn will affect not only the nevoid focus, but also spread to the entire body, which has been subjected to the prolonged aggressive influence of ultraviolet rays.
The appearance of redness and pain in the nevus zone is often associated with the restructuring of the hormonal balance in the body (during gestation, the reception of synthesized hormones).
Mole inflamed and itches
For a long time, nevi do not attract attention. But with the appearance of itching in the area of the pigmented focus, an urgent visit to the oncologist is needed. One of the causes of pruritus nevus is a pathological process associated with uncontrolled division of cells, leading to compression of surrounding tissues and structures. During this period, the mole intensively itches, and at times changes color, shape and configuration.
Such a dynamic increase in the number of pathological cells can signal the formation of a lesion of a malignant tumor. Anxiety symptoms are: redness around the nevus, itching and the appearance of liquid detachable from the mole.
Inflamed mole during pregnancy
The appearance of additional pigment spots during gestation is a natural phenomenon. During this state, the hormonal balance is transformed. Hormonal disorders contribute to the intensive appearance and growth of nevi. No pregnant woman is immune from the onset of inflammatory conditions that affect the birthmark. Symptoms of inflammation: redness, swelling, discharge of fluid from the nevus, burning and itching are possible. When these symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor to determine the cause of the inflammation of the mole. A specialist after a detailed examination will determine what measures should be taken to stop the inflammatory process, give recommendations on the proper care for the infected hearth.
The most common tips for caring for an inflamed mole:
Avoid direct UV radiation,
Do not allow additional traumatic effects on the nevus,
not subject to combs,
It is forbidden to squeeze out the contents from the mole, even if there are significant accumulations of exudate.
Removing inflamed moles during gestation by surgery or laser methods is an extreme measure. Operative intervention is carried out in the only case where the probability of malignant nevus is high.
Complications and consequences
The factors provoking adverse consequences are delineated into two categories: mechanical trauma and ultraviolet irradiation.
It is necessary to avoid prolonged exposure to the scorching sun, to avoid burns of the skin and not to provoke excessive synthesis of melanin. A dangerous consequence is the transformation of the birthmark into a dangerous malignant neoplasm. In the hot summer period it is necessary to adhere to such restrictions:
At noon, only a short stay in the open sun is allowed;
not recommended to visit tanning beds;
rest on the beaches is allowed only in the morning and evening, when the UV radiation is less active.
In the case of mechanical damage to the nevus, negative effects are also possible. A small scratch can lead to the penetration of an infection that will cause inflammation of the mole. Chronic traumatic effects of tight clothing, minor cuts in moles at shaving, also carry the threat of infection of the wound, which leads to inflammatory processes in the non-foci. Around the mole there is swelling and reddening of the skin, accompanied by itching and pain. The more often and more intensely there are traumas of a nevus, the higher the probability of the onset of a malignant process.
If the mole has visually changed and signs of inflammation are observed, it is necessary to visit a doctor in the near future.
The sudden appearance of inflammation around the mole is one of the terrible symptoms, which indicates the malignancy of the nevus. The signs of malignancy of the mole are:
change the size, color, shape of the edge;
the appearance of a red edging around the nevus;
increase in the number of non -oid elements.
Danger of inflammation is that with significant mechanical damage to the nevus, bleeding and an additional opportunity for the introduction of pathogens.
Diagnostics of the inflammation of a birthmark
Visual diagnosis of moles by a doctor occurs during the examination of the patient. If there is an inflamed non-void element, the doctor will pay attention to the appearance of a red halo around the nevus, the presence of swelling, exudation. To differentiate infectious inflammation and the onset of a malignant disease, a histological examination is necessary.
With inflamed moles, a general or biochemical blood test, a general urine test, will be of little informative value. These studies will be required if there is a need to surgically remove the nevus or the doctor will suspect a malignant process. If the inflamed nevus has healed within a week, no additional tests and studies will be required.
Experienced doctors may not always visually distinguish the inflamed mole from a malignant neoplasm. This serves as the basis for using a biopsy and further histological analysis of the resulting tissue.
In some cases, computerized dermatoscopy is used to determine the degeneration of a birthmark into a malignant oncological disease at the initial stage. This diagnostic procedure allows the specialist to study in detail the surface changes. During the study, there is no traumatic tissue damage. The doctor analyzes the results and determines the degree of risk of malignant nevus. After conducting a detailed and differential diagnosis, the specialist makes a decision about a radical method of treating a birthmark.
Differential diagnosis should be performed in determining the bacterial inflammation of the mole and the early stages of skin melanoma. These pathologies have a lot of similar visual (external) symptoms:
the sizes - 1 3 sm;
form - bumpy, nodular, hemispherical;
Surface - shiny, ulcerated, soaking, easily bleeding or covered with crusts;
color - from pink to black.
The signs of skin melanoma are:
presence of "daughter" nodules (satellites);
pigment inclusions in the tumor circumference;
increase of nearby or peripheral lymph nodes.
The final diagnosis can be confirmed solely by histopathological examination.
Which doctor to go to if the mole has inflamed?
In the presence of an inflammatory process in the mole, a consultation of a dermatologist or dermatoonkolog, dealing with malignant neuronal degeneration, is necessary. Only experienced highly specialized experts will be able to conduct an accurate diagnosis if a mole is inflamed.
Treatment of the inflammation of a birthmark
If the inflammation of the birthmark has occurred as a result of the injury, the wound surface is small and the nevus is not severely damaged - it will be sufficient to treat the site of the injury with an antiseptic solution.
In the event that the inflammation of the birthmark is chronic (it is located in a place where it is constantly injured), the inflammatory process occurs constantly - it is better to remove this nevus without waiting for its possible transformation into a malignant neoplasm. For a radical treatment of nevi, subject to constant trauma, use a variety of surgical methods.
The most well-known way to significantly reduce inflammation is the treatment of the wound surface with medical ethyl alcohol 70. The procedure is repeated several times a day. To do this, you need to moisten with a sterile cotton swab and apply to an inflamed mole without the use of force. If there is no medical alcohol in the pharmacy, you can take any alcohol-containing solution.
A simple and easy way to get rid of the inflammatory process is the use of streptocid powder. The drug is available in tablet form. Before use, the tablet should be ground into powder and sprinkled with the affected area. It will be enough several minutes of contact of the drug with the focus of inflammation. Do not apply bandages or fix a streptocid powder with a plaster.
Inflamed moles can be treated with an ointment containing an antibiotic, zinc or phenolic (salicylic) acid.
For a long time, alternative healers have been looking for simple and easy ways to quickly get rid of inflammatory processes. Widely used were various plants and objects that were available. Below are a few recipes that were used by our predecessors, who lived several centuries earlier:
Lemon and garlic juice. Inflammation around the mole will help to remove the alternate application of juice of garlic and lemon. Duration of treatment is 7 days.
Aloe juice. The juice of this plant has bactericidal properties. It is necessary 2-3 times a day to squeeze out the juice of aloe from leaflets and treat it with an inflamed area. Only fresh squeezed juice is effective.
Silver products. To remove inflammation in antiquity, the bactericidal properties of silver were used. Most often used silver cross, coin, ring, etc. Any silver object was used to apply to the inflamed place. The only condition is that the object is as clean as possible. The average time of treatment is 1 month.
It should be recalled that scientists have not yet invented a drug that will be selectively effective in inflammation of a mole. The presence of an infected foci in the area of the nevus is an occasion to visit a specialist in the near future.
There are times when a birthmark has been traumatized, but seeking medical help is not possible. In this situation, it is recommended to use herbal remedies.
Compress from tincture of celandine. The medicinal product manufactured by an industrial method can be bought in a pharmacy without a prescription, and you can make it yourself. In June, collect the leaf part of the plant. Carefully wash the collected leaves, then finely chop, fill with a 1-liter jar to the top, pour 70% with medical alcohol and leave to infuse for 14 days. The prepared remedy can be applied to the area of the inflamed mole in the form of a ten-minute compress. Admissible is the threefold treatment of the inflamed area of the nevus with a cotton swab moistened with celandine tincture.
Tincture of flowers of calendula. Tincture from this plant is a wonderful anti-inflammatory, antiseptic drug. In addition, it has properties that stimulate the regenerative ability of body tissues. There is a pharmacy form of release of tincture of calendula, or you can prepare it yourself. To prepare an alcohol tincture, take 100 ml of vodka and dry flowers of calendula (2 tablespoons). Infuse in a dark place for 14 days. A prepared remedy to process a mole that has become inflamed, thrice a day until completely cured.
Linseed oil. For cooking oil at home, you need to grind the flax seeds in the blender to the state of flour. Place the resulting mass on gauze and hang over the container, where the oil will drain. The process of separating the oil is quite long, so it will be easier to buy linseed oil, prepared in an industrial way, in a pharmacy or supermarket. To treat an inflamed mole, it is necessary to apply oil to the affected area at least 4 times a day. It will promote faster wound healing.
Homeopathic treatment for inflammation of a mole has an auxiliary value, because preparations made from plant raw materials, lastly affect the skin. Homeopathic medicines have a systemic effect on the body's immune system and thus contribute to reducing inflammation in the outbreak. Of homeopathic remedies are most often used:
Kutis compositum. Has anti-inflammatory effect.
Calendula Salbe Heel. Used to treat long-term non-healing wounds.
Belladonna Homaccord. Assign with inflammatory diseases of various body structures.
Arnica-Heel. Has anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous, analgesic effect.
These drugs are available in liquid form, packaged in bottles or ampoules for injection of dark glass. Applying the drug orally, usually prescribed 10 drops of liquid, dissolved in a small amount of water. Allowed to take the medication immediately under the tongue, without dilution with water. It is desirable to take a homeopathic remedy 20-30 minutes before meals or 1 hour after eating. The duration of the course of treatment and the dosage of the drug the doctor-homeopath appoints to each patient individually.
The doctor recommends operative radical treatment of a mole:
in the case of the location of the nevus in a place subject to constant traumatization (friction with clothing or accessories, damage with a razor, washcloth and the like).
when the contour and color of the mole are changed, pain, itching, redness appear in the area of the nevus location, which do not decrease for a long time.
To date, doctors can recommend several safest methods for removing pigmented benign lesions on the skin:
use of liquid nitrogen (cryodestruction);
application of electric current of high voltage (electrocoagulation);
To prevent inflammation and malignant transformation of moles with a preventive purpose, it is necessary:
to carry out observation and self-diagnosis of existing moles, for changing the number of tumors, their color, shape, contours;
Seek specialist advice in case of puffiness or redness in the area of the nevus;
do not expose to traumatic effects;
avoid prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, use protection against ultraviolet radiation;
not engage in self-treatment of suspicious moles;
In case of occurrence or revealing of a problem, it is necessary to consult urgently at the doctor.
If there was inflammation of the birthmark because of the introduction of pathogenic bacteria, then the prognosis is favorable in this case. And if the inflamed nevus does not heal for a long time, then a biopsy or removal of the tumor with further histological analysis will be required. In case of confirmation of the good quality of the process, a course of therapy aimed at treating the focus of inflammation is needed. If the malignant nature of the process is fixed, then treatment with the use of cytotoxic drugs will be required. Treatment started at the initial stage of malignant oncological pathology is very successful and rarely leads to relapses.
Last update: 19.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Why should you know how dangerous and non-dangerous changes in moles look like ? Because birthmarks (melanocytic nevi) are found in most people, moles are of several types and can vary, and some of them increase the risk of developing this type of skin cancer