Coagulogram - what is this analysis?
Many people are interested in the coagulogram. What is this analysis and how to do it? It should be noted that this is a real way to determine blood coagulability. Evaluation of the functioning of this ability to date is very important. Especially if the patient has to lose some blood. In this case, we mean labor or surgical intervention.
The study of coagulation is actual during pregnancy, when there are problems with the liver, blood vessels and pathologies of the immune system. Often this analysis is called a haemostasiogram. It includes several basic methods of conducting. Thanks to them, it is possible to determine bleeding time, prothrombin time, thrombosed time, fibrinogen, lupus anticoagulant, D-dimer, antithrombin III and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).
All this is necessary to determine the main indicators and abilities of blood. This procedure is very relevant. Coagulogram can prevent possible negative outcomes.
What is an expanded coagulogram? This is a procedure by which you can evaluate the functioning of the blood coagulation system. This is usually done for people suffering from strokes, heart attacks, oncology and other pathologies.
The detailed analysis is not done for women who are going to give birth soon. The detailed procedure includes APTT, MNO, Prothrombin time, Thrombin time, Fibrinogen, Antithrombin III, Protein S, Protein C, D-Dimer, Willebrandt Factor and Lupus anticoagulant.
All this allows us to thoroughly study the properties of coagulability of the blood and to understand whether it is possible for a person to perform a serious operation. After all, during such interventions, usually a lot of blood is lost. If the coagulability is poor, this significantly worsens the situation. There are also cases when the blood is not able to coagulate, it leads to a fatal outcome. Coagulogram allows you to fully assess the ability of the blood system.
Decoding of the coagulogram
The decoding of the coagulogram is performed by the attending physician. It is not easy to understand independently what is involved in the analysis. To do this, you need to have some knowledge about this topic.
So, as a result, the following indicators can be indicated: APTT, Fibrinogen, Lupus coagulant, Platelets, Prothrombin, TB, D-Dimer and Antithrombin III.
APTTV is the time for which blood can clot. Any abnormalities may indicate the development of complications or disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Fibrinogen is a specific protein that is based on a thrombus component, it is formed during the blood clotting process.
Lupus coagulant is a group of specific antibodies. In the norm of this indicator should not be at all, but if it is present, then most likely we are talking about autoimmune diseases.
Platelets are the blood elements of the blood, they form in the bone marrow. Their significant reduction is usually caused by malnutrition.
Prothrombin is a protein that is found in the blood plasma. It is from it, if necessary, to produce thrombin.
TV is thrombin time. During this period, fibrin is produced by the action of thrombin. Any deviation from the norm can testify to the pathology of the liver.
D-Dimer is the indicator that is responsible for the process of thrombus formation. It is important for the timely detection of thrombosis.
Antithrombin III is a protein that slows blood clotting.
For all these indicators, the analysis is done. Coagulogram is a serious procedure, which must be prepared.
What is included in the coagulogram?
Do you know what is included in the coagulogram? This analysis includes several main indicators, which are determined by the presence of a deviation from the norm.
So, the usual coagulogram contains the following mandatory "elements": APTT, Fibrinogen, Lupus coagulant, Platelets, Prothrombin, TV, D-Dimer and Antithrombin III. If it is a detailed analysis, then Prothrombin time, Protein S, Protein C and Willebrand Factor are added to this list.
Each of the indicators is responsible for its "function". Due to deviations in this or that "element", it is possible to understand what problems are present in the human body. This is especially important before surgery or childbirth. After all, these two "activities" imply a slight loss of blood. Coagulogram in its turn determines how quickly it can collapse and whether there are any risks for a person. Therefore, this analysis should be treated with all responsibility.
Coagulogram of INR is a calculated indicator. Using it, you can view the ratio of the patient's prothrombin time to the mean prothrombin time. What is the purpose of this analysis?
Determine this indicator is necessary for the control of therapy with indirect anticoagulants. Under the latter "elements" are meant drugs that contribute to poor coagulation, these are warfarin and phenylin.
Patients on this therapy should monitor the INR at least once every 3 months. Excessive increase can lead to a tendency to permanent bleeding. Decrease INR testifies on the contrary about the insufficient effect of anticoagulants. At the same time, there is a significant risk of thrombus formation.
This indicator should be carefully monitored. A lot can depend on this criterion. Coagulogram of this indicator is not so often and is included in the expanded spectrum of the procedure, which is performed on a special request.
Coagulogram of APTT is an activated partial thromboplastin time. Simply put, this is the time interval that is necessary for the formation of a blood clot after special reagents have been added to the plasma.
The APTTV indicator is one of the most sensitive among all. Thanks to him you can assess the condition of the internal way of blood clotting. An increase in this indicator indicates a hemophilia or 2-3 phases of the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation. With the last pathology, there is a violation of blood clotting, in which clots can form in small vessels. This is typical for people suffering from the disease Villebragda and Hagemann. If the indicator on the contrary is significantly reduced, most likely, this indicates the presence of the 1st phase of the ICE syndrome.
Doing without this "element" by conducting a general analysis is impossible. Because it is one of the standard procedures. Coagulogram includes a lot of indicators, and APTTV is one of them.
Coagulogram fibrinogen is a specific protein. It is classified as the main component of the thrombus, which is formed in the process of blood clotting. Fibrinogen is responsible for many functions and is one of the most important in blood coagulability.
Most expressed this figure increases during pregnancy. If the reason is not in this, then the problem can arise because of the development of the inflammatory process and even at the risk of cardiovascular complications. They can arise on the background of increased coagulability of blood. Therefore, this indicator should be carefully monitored.
If the indicator on the contrary is significantly reduced, then a person appears to bleed. They can have both an innate character, and also be observed in liver disorders. This indicator is mandatory and it is closely monitored during pregnancy and before surgery. Coagulogram allows you to determine how the future "procedure" will be safe for humans.
PTI coagulogram is a prothrombin index. Under normal conditions, its value varies between 70-140%. This indicator can significantly increase in pregnant women. But this is a negative phenomenon that occurs against the background of detachment of the placenta. Naturally, this is a normal process, but it can happen in the early stages. This can lead to the loss of the child, so the level of PTI must be carefully monitored.
Increased PTI directly indicates increased blood clotting. This process is observed in thrombosis and thrombophilia. In some cases, this phenomenon occurs after a prolonged intake of oral contraceptives.
If this indicator significantly reduces, then this indicates that the person is prone to bleeding. Therefore, the issue of surgical intervention must be approached with particular seriousness. After all, the current situation can end badly. That's why a coagulogram is performed and all the necessary indicators are taken off.
Coagulogram dimer is the product of fibrin degradation. This indicator illuminates violations of the process of blood clotting. This type of analysis is carried out for the diagnosis of thrombosis, in pregnancy, the syndrome of ICE and oncological diseases.
Dimer is a specific degradation product of fibrin, which is part of the thrombus. It can monitor the intensity of the processes of formation and destruction of fibrin clots. Dimer is indicative of the fact that fibrinolysis cleaves directly fibrin, not fibrinogen.
The concentration of this element can be influenced by factors such as the magnitude of thrombus. Determination of the level of dimer is a specific and sensitive marker of thrombosis. The level of this element is able to increase and because of pathological conditions, which are accompanied by enhanced fibrinolysis. These can be infections, hemorrhagic complications, wound healing, etc. Coagulogram is extremely important in this case, and it has a special significance.
Coagulogram RFMK is designed for quantitative determination of soluble complexes in blood plasma. This is exactly how RFMK is deciphered.
Soluble complexes are markers of thrombinemia with intravascular coagulation. Determine this indicator can be manual.
RFMK can not be attributed to the number of mandatory tests when conducting a coagulogram. It is rather carried out with an expanded definition of the existing problem. Usually, it is determined by the forthcoming surgery.
The main indicator is taken from the donated blood. A person does not have to take anything extra. RFMK increases with activation of blood coagulability. The higher the concentration of complexes, the higher the risk of intravascular thrombosis.
Decrease in the RFMC index is observed in the treatment with heparin. This allows you to effectively identify patients who need heparin prophylaxis and heparin therapy. Coagulogram in this case thoroughly helps.
Coagulogram Prothrombin means coagulation factor. This indicator is one of the most important. It is he who characterizes the state of the coagulating system of blood.
Any change in its amount can lead to a clotting disorder. This can lead to the impossibility of conducting an operative intervention. After all, a person during this process can lose a lot of blood.
Usually, an increase in prothrombin is observed with a tendency to thrombosis. Its normal value should not exceed 78-142%. The decrease in prothrombin is observed with a deficiency of vitamin K, as well as the intake of certain drugs, including warfarin and anabolic steroids. The level of blood coagulability is determined quite simply. Conduct it on the basis of a general analysis - coagulogram. It is one of the mandatory indicators. Without these data, it is impossible to predict the course of surgery or delivery in women. That is why the coagulogram is performed immediately before the procedure itself.
Aggregation of platelets
What is a coagulogram of platelet aggregation? The first thing worth noting is the fact that platelets are the so-called first aid of the body. As soon as the slightest damage to the vessel wall occurs, and blood begins to flow, a biochemical reaction of the platelets is made instantly.
Having found themselves on the site of damage, the elements are glued together and thereby stop the bleeding. Simply put, there is a blockage of the "rush". This process is called platelet aggregation.
This criterion is very important in the conduct of surgical intervention. After all, how quickly its blood can stop depends on its direct losses. A similar process occurs during labor. In some cases, platelet aggregation is slow and therefore there is a risk of some kind of intervention. It is easier when this process is accelerated on the contrary, although this phenomenon is considered a pathology. In what "position" everything is, determines the coagulogram.
Coagulogram table is the most convenient opportunity to review the results of the analysis. Usually all the data is reduced to a certain table, where they are compared with the norms.
As a result, all indicators should be described, depending on which analysis was conducted. In the case of an ordinary coagulogram, APTTV, Fibrinogen, Lupus coagulant, Platelets, Prothrombin, TV, D-Dimer and Antithrombin III are recorded in the table. With the expanded definition, Prothrombin time, Protein S, Protein C, and Willebrand Factor are also added.
Usually, the table indicates the indicator received and the rate to which it should strive. In case of deviation, the cause of the phenomenon is described. After all, each indicator depends on its factors. Starting the inflammatory process in the body and ending with pathological changes. Based on the data received, a decision is made regarding further action. Coagulogram fully describes the state of coagulability of the blood.