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Candidiasis after taking antibiotics: signs, how and what to treat?

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020
 
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Thrush after antibiotics occurs quite often, since antibiotics contribute to the development of dysbacteriosis. They completely or partially kill the normal microflora.

Can there be thrush after antibiotics?

Despite the fact that antibiotics are quite effective medicines that stop the infectious process, killing pathogens, or suppressing their growth and activity, they are not without flaws. So, one of the significant drawbacks is that they suppress the growth of not only pathogenic microorganisms, but also kill the normocenosis.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3]

Epidemiology

According to statistics, every second person, although once in life, after taking antibiotics, there were signs of the disease in question. Most often, thrush develops in the urogenital tract. Genitourinary tract of a woman is most sensitive to changes in microflora, and also contribute to the development and rapid progression of infection. It should be noted that in men, thrush occurs about 4 times less frequently than in women. In second place in the frequency of occurrence is thrush of the oral cavity, which occurs mainly in children under the age of 3 years, as well as in newborns. A milkmaid can be infected.

This happens in 67% of cases and is observed only with reduced immunity or after taking antibiotics, as in normal colonization resistance does not allow the development of pathogens and fungi.

trusted-source[4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]

Causes of the thrush after antibiotics

The cause is the development of dysbiosis, in which the normal ratio of microorganisms in the urogenital tract is disturbed.

trusted-source[13], [14], [15]

Risk factors

The risk group includes all people taking antibiotics. These can be people who recently recovered from angina, bronchitis, pneumonia, people with weakened immunity, with reduced colonization resistance of microflora. People who are periodically or regularly treated with drugs, which include antibiotics, antiseptics that affect the microflora, also fall into the risk group.

The elderly and senile people, children, newborns, as well as people after surgical interventions, invasive procedures, weakened and depleted are significantly at risk first of all. Here also people with wound infection, violations of the integrity of the skin, women in the postpartum period, because it is at this time the body is as weak as possible and its protection is minimal. At this time, antibiotic therapy is often prescribed, which causes changes in the microflora in the body, which is already heavily burdened.

trusted-source[16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22]

Pathogenesis

Also, the normal microflora possesses colonization resistance, that is, the ability to suppress the growth of pathogens, and to prevent their introduction into the mucous membranes. In the absence of a normal number of such microorganisms, it is the pathogenic microorganisms that colonize the biotope base, since they are characterized by the ability to rapidly grow, progress, and quickly colonize various microbiocenoses. Also quite often the "vacant" place is occupied by various fungi, mainly yeast-like, with the capacity for continuous, colonizing growth. The main such fungi are representatives of the genus Candida, which are the main pathogens of thrush.

trusted-source[23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33]

Symptoms of the thrush after antibiotics

There is a feeling of discomfort, white coating, which gradually develops into a discharge of white, often liquid consistency, sometimes with curdled and flaky inclusions. Gradually, the itching intensifies, discomfort appears, gradually escalating with pain. The lesion focus may increase in size, and new foci of infection may develop, which gradually spread throughout the body, form new conglomerates.

Thrush can be accompanied by an unpleasant odor that resembles the smell of a missing fish. Sometimes the pain can affect not only the area of the excretory organs, but also the anus, the rectum. There is pain, which increases with urination and defecation, there are frequent, sometimes false urge to urinate. Gradually, development and progression of the infection can occur, as well as its spread, including internal organs.

The earliest precursors of thrush development are mild itching, discomfort in the genital area, which occurs a few days after taking antibiotics. Gradually, the symptoms increase, there are discharge, itching intensifies. May develop redness, irritation.

White discharge after antibiotics

After using antibiotics, after a few days, white discharge may appear. This may indicate the development of a bacterial or fungal infection. Most often they are white or translucent, less often - thick, flaky, or curdled. Often they are accompanied by itching, redness, burning, and also intensify by the evening, or after another antibiotic intake, if the treatment is still ongoing.

An unpleasant smell may appear in the morning. All these are signs of thrush, which you need to start treating as soon as possible to avoid complications.

Thrush in the mouth, on the tongue after antibiotics

Sometimes the location of the thrush is not only the genito-urinary tract, but also the oral cavity. This is one of the most dangerous forms, as it develops with very weak immunity. The peculiarity of this form is that the disease progresses very quickly and can spread to the throat, nasopharynx, pharynx, and even to the upper and lower respiratory tract.

In addition, the condition is characterized by impaired microflora in the oral cavity, and this inevitably entails a violation of the entire digestive tract. Patients with this form of the disease most often have a generalized form of infection, in which it progresses and spreads through the body. For treatment, it is necessary that the treatment be comprehensive. It should be based on the restoration of normal microflora and normalization of the immune system.

Thrush in men after antibiotics

In men, thrush is a relatively rare occurrence. Basically, it is a disease that most often occurs in women. The main cause is dysbiosis. Infection from external sources is rare. Unlike women, men do not need special treatment. It is enough to increase the immunity, and normalize the microflora.

Thrush after antibiotics in women

In women, the parameters of microflora and hormones are more variable, and much lower than in men. Especially dramatically the woman's immunity decreases after illness, and after treatment with antibiotics. Etiological factor - an increased amount of fungal microflora, which occurs against the background of a decrease in normoflora.

It is these microorganisms that provide a normal state of the mucosa, provide a high degree of colonization resistance of the mucous membranes. They account for up to 98%.

After taking antibiotics, this level drops sharply (to an average of 60-65%). The released place is occupied by other, mainly pathogenic microorganisms, which entails the development of diseases, inflammations. Mostly the fungi of the genus Candida progress.

Thrush after antibiotics in pregnancy

In many women, thrush is even a sign, an early harbinger of pregnancy, which occurs in the first months, and sometimes even before the first delay appeared. Immunity is reduced, but if the woman is sick, the immunity decreases even more. If you had to take antibiotics, the severity and severity of the thrush increased.

If a woman at the same time abstains from sexual activity, the violation of microflora is aggravated. This is due to the fact that during the sexual act there is a hormonal explosion, accompanied by a plentiful release of hormones, which have a positive effect, including on the microflora. And also sperm contains biologically active components and substances that maintain the optimal ratio and normal functioning of normal microflora.

We need to see a doctor as soon as possible and have a gynecological examination. If there is a violation of microflora, the child will also be disturbed. In addition, the child may have persistent skin diseases.

Therefore thrush in pregnant women must be treated, regardless of the reasons for which it arose. Even if it arose after taking antibiotics.

There are means that are safe, and which are allowed to be taken even during pregnancy. For example, one such remedy is pimafucin, which is available as a tablet or as a candle. It is better to use candles. The course of treatment requires only three candles. They are administered intravaginally in the evening. Tablets are prescribed for a slight progression and severe course of the disease.

Candidiasis in a child after antibiotics

In the genitourinary system, thrush is rare in children, but it can occur in the oral cavity. Especially often thrush in the mouth occurs in infants and in newborns. This is due to the lack of formation of microflora, its variability, as well as sensitivity to antibiotics, and other factors. Also in infants, teeth can be cut, which reduces immunity and can also cause disturbances in the normal ratio of microorganisms in the oral cavity, and may also be due to the fact that almost all children are pulled into their mouths and taste.

trusted-source[34], [35], [36], [37]

Complications and consequences

Consequences are a violation of the microbial composition of the organism, its individual biocenoses. This can lead to the development of infection. The danger is that fungal infection often develops. It can progress quite rapidly, spreading to other biotopes. This can entail a disruption of the normal functioning of the body's basic systems.

trusted-source[38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]

Diagnostics of the thrush after antibiotics

The only doctor who can in this case be able to make the correct diagnosis is a gynecologist. It is necessary to undergo a gynecological examination. If this is not enough, the doctor will appoint the appropriate methods of research, according to the results of which the appropriate treatment will be prescribed.

trusted-source[46], [47], [48], [49]

Analyzes

Appoint smears from the urogenital tract and cervical canal for further investigation and conduct further bacteriological culture. Determine the presence of bacterial microflora, its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Also a smear is taken for further microscopic and cytological testing, by means of which the main characteristics of the cellular composition, microscopic characteristics are determined. Also with the help of this method, it is possible to identify abnormal and genetically transformed cells, which subsequently are precursors of malignant tumors.

trusted-source[50], [51], [52], [53]

Instrumental diagnostics

The main method of investigation is ultrasound. This method allows you to determine the main pathologies of the small pelvis, abdominal area, uterus. Carried out as a vaginal (internal) method of investigation, and external. You can identify foci of inflammation, adhesions, scars, areas of echogenicity, from which tumors, benign and malignant tumors occur. With the help of ultrasound, various causes are identified that can lead to the development of thrush. The body of the uterus is examined, its position, presence or absence of abnormalities in position, size.

The main indicators are measured. The structural features of the myometrium from different sides and positions are studied. A separate study of the endometrium is being carried out. Particular attention is paid to its thickness and structure, the presence of separate diffuse formations, foci, structures and inclusions. The contours, the uterine cavity are explored. The peculiarities of the structure and localization of the cervix are being studied. Then gradually move on to the investigation of the right and left ovary. The length, thickness, width, volume are determined, structural features are noted. In the presence of fluid in the pediatric space, its nature, quantity, localization is noted.

Usually this basic method of investigation is enough. But sometimes, if information is not enough to make a diagnosis, more detailed research may be required. Assign a hysteroscopy, with the help of which a special instrument - a hysteroscope - is inserted into the uterine cavity through the cervix and further studies of the structural features of the endometrium, wall and mucous membrane. Also, such methods as colposcopy, X-rays, CT and MRI are used, but these methods are extremely rare.

Differential diagnosis

The basis is the need to differentiate different types of diseases that have similar signs and symptoms. So, for example, it is necessary to differentiate the inflammatory process from the infectious process, the tumor from the formations and the hematoma. Various diagnostic methods are used, including laboratory, instrumental.

trusted-source[54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [62]

Treatment of the thrush after antibiotics

Assign primarily means aimed at restoring normal microflora. An important condition is maintaining the normal state of the mucous membranes. The use of funds aimed at reducing the number of fungal microflora is clinically unjustifiable, since the microflora itself is able to reduce the number of pathogens on condition of its normal composition and complete recovery.

Treatment of dysbacteriosis after antibiotics

Various medications are used, including probiotics and prebiotics, the main effect of which is directed to the normalization of bacterial and fungal microflora, as well as the maintenance of the normal functioning of the mucous membranes, and the removal of the inflammatory process.

Probiotics are drugs that include representatives of normal human microflora. Thus, by drinking a capsule of such medicines, microorganisms are populated in the human body that occupy their niche in the corresponding microbiocenosis and provide colonization resistance of the mucous membrane, preventing the development of pathogenic microflora.

Prebiotics are drugs that contain relevant substances that act as growth factors that stimulate the growth and development of normal microflora. Accordingly, the number of representatives of normal flora increases, which prevents the growth and development of pathogenic flora.

Medications

It is impossible to be treated independently of the yeast infection, as this is a rather delicate problem, which can be aggravated by improper treatment, rather quickly progressing and taking even other biotopes. Therefore, it is necessary to observe precautions - during treatment, it is necessary to consult a doctor and follow the prescribed treatment regimen. Otherwise, there are numerous side effects - inflammation, tumors, polyps, cysts, the progression of fungal and bacterial infections, and even its spread to other biotopes.

Pimafucin is the primary remedy, the drug of choice No. 1, which is prescribed in this case. It is a preparation of an antifungal action that effectively eliminates fungal infection and normalizes the state of microbiocenosis. Can be used even for pregnant women. It is recommended to use in the form of suppositories, which are introduced into the vagina, as deeply as possible before going to bed, after an evening toilet. At the same time, the treatment course is designed for only three days, and this time is enough for the disease to completely disappear. If these funds are not sufficient, pimafucin is given in the form of tablets.

In second place in the frequency of prescribing is fluconazole. It is prescribed for a more severe and progressive infection. It is also an antifungal agent, especially effective against fungi of the genus Candida. Recommended in the amount of 1 tablet. The only pill is enough to completely eliminate the symptoms of the disease and normalize the microflora. It should be taken into account that the drug is relatively strong, and it is better to use it only if there are no other treatment options, or you know for sure that the cause is a fungal infection. If this is not enough, and the symptoms continue to bother, you can prescribe a second course (from one pill) in 3-4 days.

In third place is clotrimazole - a powerful antifungal agent, which is prescribed in the event that other drugs have proved ineffective. This drug is heavy on the stomach, kidneys and liver. It is better not to use it for people with the pathology of these organs. Take basically one tablet per course.

Also, with the thrush, probiotics are prescribed, which are aimed at normalizing the urogenital microflora, and further maintaining it. One of the most well-known tools aimed at normalizing the microflora of the urogenital tract is a symbiologist, developed and released by the Institute of Microbiology and Immunology. I.I. Mechnikov. This is quite an effective tool that has already been tested on many women and children. The clinical efficacy of the drug has been proven in clinical and preclinical studies, and now the drug is used on the basis of inpatient and hospital treatment.

  • Diflucan

The active substance of this drug is fluconazole. It is a preparation of antifungal action. Take a pill (capsule) per day - 150 mg. With a strong infection, the dosage can be increased to two tablets per day (300 mg). Helps to eliminate the symptoms of thrush, another fungal infection. It is recommended to take only as prescribed by the doctor, since many side effects can occur.

  • Pimafucin

Produced in the form of ointments, suppositories, cream and tablets. One of the safest medicines that are used in the treatment of various diseases of inflammatory and infectious genesis. This is one of the relatively safe means, which is confirmed by the fact that the drug can be used even during pregnancy.

Candles are often prescribed because they have a local effect, do not penetrate the bloodstream, quickly penetrate into the inflammatory focus, localize the infection. Also one of the advantages is that the drug in this case allows you to bypass the gastrointestinal tract, respectively, reduces the level of infection, and reduces the likelihood of infection. In addition, the suppository melts, and a foam forms that covers the perineal surface, providing additional therapeutic effect. Usually a course of treatment requires 3 candles, designed for three days of treatment.

The cream has an additional effect on the body, enhancing the effect of ointments and tablets. Usually it is prescribed in the event that the disease is protracted, or proceeds in severe form. It is convenient in the treatment of thrush and fungal infection in various locations: on the nails, hands, in the mouth, internal organs. Cream can be used up to a month.

The drug has a fungistatic effect, that is, kills a fungal infection. Depending on the dosage prescribed, the drug either partially suppresses the growth of microorganisms, or completely kills them. Usually in tablets take from 5 to 10 days. This is enough to completely get rid of the symptoms of the pathology.

  • Clotrimazole

Fluconazole is also the active substance. Assign a pill a day. Duration of treatment is from 3 to 5 days. It should be taken with care to patients who suffer from kidney and liver diseases, since the drug creates an additional burden on these organs due to the high dosage of the active substance.

  • Fluconazole

Assign one capsule per day. Sometimes it is enough and one tablet in order to completely eliminate the symptoms of pathology. But often the course requires three tablets (they are taken daily for three days). Often people ask a question: how to take fluconazole while taking antibiotics? There is a fairly simple scheme - if you are treated only with fluconazole, take on the whole pill for three days. If you still take antibiotics or have recently undergone antibiotic therapy, you will need to reduce the dosage to half a tablet per day.

Assign a pill a day. Duration of treatment can range from one to seven days. The active substance is fluconazole. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor.

Suppositories from thrush after antibiotics

There is a large number of suppositories - fluconazole, flucostat, pimafucin, fluconazole. Suppositories from candidiasis are considered more effective. They allow a much faster cure of any disease, because they have a local effect directly on the focus of inflammation. Also there are some candles, among the recipes of alternative medicine, which you can prepare yourself, but you should treat these medications with caution.

Physiotherapeutic treatment

The main methods of physiotherapy are ultrasound, microcurrents, waves of different lengths. Sometimes there is gynecological massage, urogenital tract massage, perineal massage, and massage of the crochet area. It can be useful segmental-reflex and visceral massage.

In complex therapy, an important role is given to reflexotherapy, vertebral action (massage of the vertebrae and intervertebral discs), visceral practices (the development of internal organs through the abdominal wall). Also shown are the methods of hatha yoga, qigong, physiotherapy exercises, gymnastics, proper breathing, meditation, relaxation, self-regulation.

Electrophoresis is used, with the help of which drugs are injected directly into the mucous membranes. The depth of their penetration is regulated by a microcurrent. Cryoprocedures, such as moxibustion with liquid nitrogen, thermal procedures are shown. Sometimes electroprocedures are used.

A rather effective method is acupuncture (acupuncture), bloodletting, autoinjection (injections of own blood, purified). Also, the means of therapeutic physical training, active and passive gymnastics are used.

Alternative treatment

  • Recipe number 1.

Ointment from honey and hydrogen peroxide is used to lubricate the mucous membranes and walls of the vagina. To prepare the ointment, honey is removed, about 3 tablespoons. Add about 50 grams of peroxide, mix thoroughly and allow to solidify until a uniform mass is formed. Apply a thin layer for about 15-20 minutes on the affected areas, then rinse with warm water, dab with a towel and apply a small layer of any fatty remedy or baby cream.

  • Recipe number 2.

For the general strengthening of the body use balm. It is prepared on the basis of alcohol. For cooking, take a tablespoon berries barberry, clusters of ashberry, 2 tablespoons blueberries or cowberries, as well as 2-3 tablespoons of crushed leaves of nettle, stevia, sage.

  • Recipe number 3.

To wash the affected areas, and just for washing, use an anti-inflammatory composition: 3-4 tablespoons of chamomile and calendula herbs are poured with a liter of boiling water, cover with a lid. Insist until the broth becomes warm. After that, use for washing.

trusted-source[63]

Herbal Treatment

Herbs have long been used to treat various infectious, inflammatory diseases. They also found wide application in gynecology. Most often, herbs are used for washing and syringing, rinsing, rinsing and instilling of the nasal cavity. With severe inflammation, as well as general weakness, a decrease in the body's resistance is used inward in the form of broths, infusions. Some herbs can be used as tea.

It can be used as a part of complex therapy, it is possible separately, as part of monotherapy (so-called herbal medicine - treatment with herbs and plant raw materials). Apply different treatment schemes, use different parts of the plant: roots, leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, fruits. Some plants are included in complex charges, ointments, gels, creams.

In gynecology, grasses such as sage - have an anti-inflammatory effect; chamomile - antiseptic, anti-inflammatory effect; calendula - removes inflammation, restores damage, normalizes microflora. It is recommended to use these herbs as decoctions for ingestion, as well as for washing. The broth is made from the calculation of 2 tablespoons of the product for a glass of boiling water.

Homeopathy

Homeopathic remedies should be used with basic precautions. Negligence and non-observance of precautions can lead to side effects - a violation of microflora, the progression of fungal infection, the spread of the focus of the inflammatory and infectious process. The main precautions include, first of all, compliance with all the recommendations of a doctor.

  • Recipe number 1. Balsam strengthening

For cooking, take a tablespoon of sea buckthorn berries, raspberry leaves, oak bark, pour about 500 ml of vodka or pure alcohol, and then add half a teaspoon of barberry, nutmeg and cloves. All this insists at least 3-4 days, I drink 50 ml per day. The course of treatment is at least 28 days (complete biochemical cycle).

  • Recipe number 2. Balm rejuvenating

Take in equal parts leaves of buckthorn and walnut septums (about 2-3 tablespoons), add about 200 grams of cherries with bones, pour 500 ml of alcohol, insist for at least 5 days, drink in small amounts twice a day, 28 days.

  • Recipe number 3. Anti-inflammatory ointment

This ointment can be prepared at home on your own. But it is sold and ready-made, under different names, depending on the manufacturer. So, the firm "Service of rescue 911" is issued under the name "Travmalgon". Can be applied a thin layer on the affected areas, including, and on the mucous membranes, the perineal zone. Do not apply only to oral and nasal mucosa. The composition includes an extract of spaghetti, nettle, propolis, pepper oil, eucalyptus, arnica and camphor. Removes inflammation, itching, burning.

  • Recipe number 4. Moisturizing cream

Apply for application on mucous membranes with a thin layer. Mainly used for application after washing. The composition includes the wild Arctic rose oil and vitamin A, E. Apply light massaging movements, until completely absorbed.

Surgery

Operative methods are rarely used, mainly when conservative methods are ineffective. But they can be the only way to solve the problem when developing tumors. Both benign and malignant neoplasms are removed. Also, surgical methods can be used in the case of vascular pathology, in the presence of cysts, polyps, proliferation of various types of tissue.

Prevention

At the heart of prevention lies in the first place, timely diagnosis. It is important to identify pathology at an early stage of its formation and to take the necessary measures. This will prevent the progression of the disease.

Also the most important condition for prevention is the use, together with antibiotics, of probiotics or prebiotics, which restore the normal microflora. In case of the first signs of thrush, fungicides are used. Also, some antibiotics require the simultaneous administration of fungicidal drugs.

In addition, it is important to perform physical exercises, eat right and observe the regime of the day. Clothes should be natural, should not irritate the skin and cause excessive compression and squeezing of the skin. You need to consume enough vitamin, provide a copious drink.

trusted-source[64]

Forecast

If the cause is determined in time and the necessary treatment is carried out, the prognosis will be favorable. Thrush after antibiotics can be completely and completely eliminated. The main means in this case are probiotics, prebiotics. If you tighten the diagnosis and treatment - the forecast can be unpredictable.

trusted-source[65], [66], [67], [68], [69]

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