Oncological pathologies have never been considered easy in therapy, but T-cell lymphoma, despite all the danger of the situation, is not an excuse to give up. The scheme and, to a large extent, the outcome of treatment always depends on the timeliness of antitumor activities and the type of T-cell pathology.
The main methods of combating malignant lymphatic neoplasms are:
- Systemic therapy with chemical drugs that stop tumor growth (chemotherapy).
- The effect on the tumor of ionizing radiation (electron beam therapy, which is the only method of physiotherapeutic treatment for malignant lymphomas).
- Admission corticosteroids (anti-inflammatory therapy),
- Reception of drugs that activate antitumor processes in the body (biotherapy). Preparations are made directly from the patient's cellular structures.
- Bone marrow transplantation. First, intensive chemotherapy (myeloablative therapy) is aimed at the complete destruction of cancer cells and suppression of the immune system in order to avoid rejection of the transplant, and then the patient is injected with healthy stem cells from the donor or their own taken before chemotherapy.
- Taking medications that stimulate the immune system, and vitamins to increase immunity.
- Surgery. Surgical removal of the tumor is performed only with single lesions, mainly when the tumor process is diagnosed in the gastrointestinal tract. To avoid recurrence of the tumor after its removal, chemotherapy is indicated simultaneously with several antitumor drugs (polychemotherapy).
Surgical treatment for T-cell lymphoma is not always justified. Firstly, in most cases, lesions are found a few, and the migration of pathological cells through the lymphatic system contributes to a fairly rapid spread of the disease to other organs (metastasis), which sometimes requires not one but several operations. And if you consider that cancer significantly weakens the body, then not every patient can tolerate even one, not that several surgical interventions.
The approach to treatment, of course, can be different depending on the localization and prevalence of the process. So for the treatment of a mild form of fungal mycosis (erythematous), the appointment of corticosteroids and interferon preparations is indicated. Chemotherapy is not prescribed, irradiation is not carried out.
In other forms of T-cell cutaneous lymphomas, both systemic and local treatment may be prescribed. Local treatment of skin cancer T-pathologies can be carried out with a preparation in the form of gel "Valhlor" produced in the USA. Alas, this drug is still not available in our country.
The active substance of the drug is mechlorethamine. Preparations with this active substance (for example, "Embichin") are used for systemic therapy of T-cell forms of skin cancer. Also, anti-tumor agents such as Vinblastine, Fludarabine, Dakarbazine, Chlorbutin, Adriamycin, Vincristine, Cyclophosphane and others can be used as part of polychemotherapy.
In skin pathologies, antitumor antibiotics (for example, Rubomycin), corticosteroids (for example, Prednisolone, Triamcinolone) and phototherapy (more often PUVA therapy) are also used.
In the biotherapy of T-cell lymphomas, both patient cell preparations and monoclonal antibodies in the form of Rituxan, Mabtera, Kampas, Kampat, Avastin, Beksar can be used.
The treatment of the consequences of high-dose myeloablative therapy is carried out with the use of preparations "Filstim", "Zarsio", "Neipomax", etc.
Drugs can be administered either orally or intravenously. Most drugs are designed for drip administration. Treatment should be carried out under the strict supervision of an oncologist.
Radiation therapy with T-cell lymphoma is usually conducted in a course of 21-40 days. Irradiation is local in nature, without damaging the rest of the body. Time and radiation dose is determined by the radiologist, depending on the location and stage of the tumor process.
At the initial stages of pathology, radiation therapy can be prescribed as an independent method of treatment, then it is already used in combination with chemotherapy.
With glowing forms of T-lymphoma, doctors are slow to prescribe conservative treatment, taking a wait-and-see attitude. The patient is regularly observed in the oncologist, and in case of an exacerbation he will be assigned effective therapy in accordance with the type of pathology.
Drugs for T-cell lymphoma
It is worth mentioning immediately that the treatment of cancer of any etiology is a serious issue that specialists must deal with. What kinds of drugs will be effective for a particular pathology, and what kind of treatment scheme to apply, the specialist doctor decides. Doctors categorically do not recommend self-treatment.
There are quite a few drugs for the treatment of tumoral diseases today. If we talk about their effectiveness, it is worth noting: the timely initiation of therapy in most cases gives positive results. It is clear that the advanced stages of cancer are beyond the power even of chemotherapy. In addition, each organism is individual, and what brings the desired relief to one does not always help save the life of another patient.
Consider only a few drugs that doctors use to treat T-cell lymphomas of various origins.
"Embichin" is an alkylating cytotoxic drug, whose action is directed to the destruction of the cell structure of clones of T-lymphocytes with gene mutations.
Enter the drug intravenously according to one of the two schemes:
- The shock method is designed for a 4-day course of chemotherapy. Daily, once a day, the patient is given the drug in a dosage determined as 0.1 mg per kilogram of body weight. Sometimes prescribe the drug in full dosage once.
- Fractional-traction method. The medicine is administered 3 times a week. The usual dosage is 5-6 mg. Course - from 8 to 20 introductions.
Possible introduction into the pleural and abdominal cavities.
The drug is not prescribed for a complicated course of the disease, with severe anemia, certain blood diseases (leukopenia and thrombocytopenia). The question of the possibility of using the drug will also arise in case of severe damage to the kidneys and liver, as well as in cardiovascular pathologies.
Among the frequent side effects can be distinguished changes in the characteristics of the blood, symptoms of anemia, disruption of the digestive tract, sometimes weakness and pain in the head. If the drug enters the skin during injection, it can cause the formation of infiltration and tissue necrosis at the site of administration. The severity of the major side effects with intensive therapy is much stronger than with the fractional administration of the drug.
"Vinblastine" is an antineoplastic drug based on vinca alkaloid. Has antitumor effect due to the fact that it blocks the division of cells.
The drug can be administered only intravenously, trying to avoid getting under the skin. The dose is selected in accordance with the chosen chemotherapy regimen. The standard dosage is from 5.5 to 7.4 mg per square meter of body surface area (infant dose from 3.75 to 5 mg per square meter). The drug is prescribed 1 time a week, sometimes 1 time in 2 weeks.
There is another scheme of administration, in which they start treatment with a minimal infant dose, gradually increasing it to 18.5 mg per 1 sq.m. Body. For children, the initial dose is 2.5, and the maximum dose is 12.5 mg per 1 sq. M.
The course of treatment depends on the white blood cell count.
The drug is not used for severe oppression of bone marrow function, infectious pathologies, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Do not use medicine for hypersensitivity to its components.
Frequent side effects: leukopenia and granulocytopenia. Disorders from other organs and systems are much less common.
"Rubomycin" - a drug that belongs to the category of antitumor antibacterial agents, i.e. He simultaneously fights both cancerous and bacterial cells.
The drug is also administered intravenously to avoid the appearance of infiltration and death of skin tissues. Assign the drug course in 5 days, during which the patient receives the drug at a dosage of 0.8 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Repeat the course after 7-10 days. Now the drug is prescribed for a period of 3 to 5 days at a dosage of 0.5-1 mg per kg of body weight per day. Pediatric dose - from 1 to 1.5 mg per 1 kg of weight per day.
There are many cancer treatment regimens using the drug in combination with other antitumour agents, in which the dosage and the frequency of reception may vary.
Contraindications to the use of the drug are severe pathologies of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidneys, suppression of bone marrow function, pregnancy and lactation. At acute infectious pathologies there is a risk of development of various complications. It is forbidden to drink alcohol.
The most common side effects are granulocytopenia and trobrocytopenia (a decrease in the concentration of granulocytes and platelets in the blood).
"Campas" is a drug based on monoclonal antibodies that bind to lymphocytes and dissolve them, while the bone marrow stem cells remain unaffected, so the production of T lymphocytes does not suffer. Mature and lymphocytes already matured.
The drug is injected into the body by infusion, while the process of intravenous infusion is long and is at least 2 hours. To avoid allergic reactions and painful sensations, before the dropper, analgesics and antihistamines are taken.
The drug for 3 days is introduced according to the scheme with increasing dosage: 3, 10 and 30 mg, while constantly monitoring the reaction of the body to the drug. Next, the drug is administered every other day for 1-3 months. Dosage at the same time remains maximum - 30 mg per day.
With a poor tolerance of the drug with the occurrence of side effects, the dose is gradually increased only after the reaction to the drug has returned to normal.
The drug is prohibited in patients with acute stage of infectious pathology of a systemic nature, including cases of HIV infection, non-lymphocytic tumors, during pregnancy and during breastfeeding, with hypersensitivity to components. The drug is canceled if there are toxic reactions or there is further progression of the disease.
There is insufficient information about the effect of the drug on the children's body.
The most common side effects of the drug are: chills, fever, increased fatigue, lower blood pressure, headaches. Many of them have GIT reactions in the form of nausea, sometimes with vomiting, and diarrhea, changes in blood composition (reduced granulocyte and platelet count, anemia), hyperhidrosis, allergic reactions. It can also develop sepsis, herpes simplex, pneumonia. Quite often patients note a feeling of lack of air (dyspnoea).
"Nejpomaks" - a drug that stimulates the production of leukocytes, the active substance - filgrastim.
The introduction of large doses of chemotherapeutic agents before bone marrow transplantation often leads to a decrease in the production of leukocytes, which must be corrected before the procedure begins. The same phenomenon can be observed after usual chemotherapy. Therefore, patients with neutropenia (insufficient production of neutrophilic leukocytes) and prescribe drugs based on filgrastim.
The medication is prescribed one day after the chemotherapy in a dosage of 5 μg per day. Enter the drug subcutaneously. The course of treatment is not more than 14 days. Therapy is continued until the optimal number of neutrophils in the blood is reached.
With myeloablative therapy, the drug is prescribed in a dosage of 10 μg for 4 weeks. Enter it intravenously drip.
The drug is not used for severe congenital neutropenia (Kastmann syndrome) and hypersensitivity to the components of the drug. Caution is observed with sickle cell anemia.
Among the side effects of the drug can be identified: dyspeptic phenomena, myalgia and arthralgia, increased liver and spleen sizes, the appearance of infiltrate in the lungs, bronchial spasms and dyspnea. Also, sometimes there is a decrease in bone density, a jump in blood pressure, an increase in heart rate, swelling on the face, nosebleeds, weakness. In some cases, changes in the blood composition are observed: a decrease in the platelet count and an increase in the white blood cell count (thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis). In the urine, protein and blood (protein and hematuria) can be detected.
Non-traditional methods of cancer treatment
It would seem that effective methods of combating cancer exist (the same radiation and chemotherapy), and medicines that can kill the cells are enough, but not everyone can afford this treatment. In addition, the methods of traditional medicine leave behind many new problems, which again have to be treated.
For example, the effects of chemotherapy can be seen in the form of alopecia (active hair loss), weight gain due to increased appetite, heart rhythm disturbances and the development of heart failure. In some cases, a new diagnosis (usually another type of blood cancer) is attached to the diagnosis. For men, chemotherapy may threaten the inability to have children (infertility).
Cases of complications after radiation therapy are also common. It can be a decrease in the functionality of the thyroid gland (as a rule, hypothyroidism develops), the development of radiation pneumonitis characterized by cicatricial structures in the lung tissues, inflammation of the intestine or bladder (colitis and cystitis), inadequate saliva production, and radiation burns.
It turns out, one treats - the other is crippled. This moment and the high cost of therapy of T-cell lymphoma and other oncological pathologies push people to search for new and new methods of treating a terrible disease.
On the Internet, you can now find many posts about the treatment of cancer using non-traditional methods. Someone rejects alternative treatment, referring to the fact that it did not save life for acquaintances, others actively use it, achieving good results. We will not take either side, but only give a little information about the medicines used outside the oncological hospital.
Many adherents of non-traditional cancer treatment (including many doctors!) Agree on the opinion that the development of malignant tumors is caused by the acidic environment of the body, in which there is not enough oxygen for the normal functioning of cells. If the pH level of the internal environment is raised, cellular respiration improves, and cell proliferation stops. It turns out that products that reduce the acidity of the body and improve the supply of cells with oxygen, can stop the development of malignant processes.
A special role in this regard is given to the product that is actually present in every kitchen - baking soda. As alkali it is able to reduce the acidity of any medium, including the internal environment of the body. Soda is recommended for use as a peroral (alkalizing the gastrointestinal tract, getting in some quantity and into the blood), and in the form of injections, which allows you to deliver alkali to all corners of the body through the blood. However, pre-soda is recommended to extinguish with boiling water.
According to the method of the Italian doctor (!) Tulio Simoncini, soda should be taken twice a day half an hour before meals (gradually increasing the dose from 1/5 to 2 tsp), diluting it with hot water and washing down a glass of liquid (water, milk). It is necessary that the soda solution contacts directly with cancer cells, therefore, for the treatment of various types of cancer, lotions, inhalations, injections, douchings are also used.
One of the adherents of this method of cancer treatment is our compatriot professor Ivan Pavlovich Neumyvakin, who developed a system for treating various types of cancer with the help of soda and hydrogen peroxide. In this case, not pure peroxide is used, but its solution (from 1 to 10 drops of 3% hydrogen peroxide is taken for 50 ml of water). Take the drug three times a day for an hour before a meal, every day increasing the number of drops peroxide per 1 (the first day - 1 drop, the second - two, etc.). After 10 days of treatment, make a 5-day break.
By the way, in order to reduce the acidity of the internal environment and block the way of cancer, scientists adherents of alkalizing the body advise paying special attention to their food, because in our diet there are products that can either increase or lower the pH. The alkalizing products include herbs, fruits (except very sweet), dried apricots, almonds, milk and dairy products, berries, vegetables. But meat, sausages and smoked products, fish and seafood, eggs, pastries, grape juice, jam, preservation on the contrary increase the acidity of the body. By the way, a lemon without sugar is considered to be an alkaline product, despite its acid, but if used with sugar, its effect will be directly opposite.
Interest is caused by such a method of fighting cancer as drinking beet juice, which also improves cellular respiration and is able to arrest the growth and development of cancer cells. And if we take into account the rich vitamin-mineral composition of the bright red root, then we can say with certainty that treatment with it will help strengthen the immune, nervous and other body systems. And this will enable the body to independently fight various diseases, including cancer.
The intake of beet juice is perfectly combined with traditional methods of treatment and even reduces their negative consequences. But there is also information about curing cancer with beet juice alone, which is much cheaper than the course of treatment in the oncological hospital.
For treatment, a freshly squeezed juice that is kept in the refrigerator for at least 2 hours is used, made from the fruit of table varieties with a bright color. In order to get a sufficient antitumor result, you need to drink during the day, 600 ml of juice. Drink the juice should be slightly warmed for half an hour before eating. You can mix it with carrot juice.
Drink beet juice in small sips of 100 ml per 1 reception daily. The course of treatment is long (1 year or more). To stabilize the juice drink in the amount of 1 cup per day.
It is also useful to use boiled beets, because with a short heat treatment, it actually does not lose its useful properties.
By the way, the choice of alternative healers fell on the beet. Its antitumor properties are recognized and official medicine. On the basis of beet, one of the antitumor drugs has even been developed.
Many plants possess antitumoral properties, and let the treatment with herbs of T-cell lymphoma and other cancers not widely spread, there are positive responses and such treatment.
Even in official medicine, plants containing caryoclastic poisons capable of killing pathogenic cells are recognized as antitumor agents. Such poisons include alkaloids, lactones and cardiac glycosides found in many plants:
- alkaloid-containing: colchicum brilliant and gorgeous (tubers), celandine, barberry, rue, wormwood, yellow wool and some others,
- lactose-containing: podofil thyroid and Himalayan, eucommia, helenium, almond allegiance, gaylyardia.
- Containing cardiac glycosides: white, dioecious and chernoplodny, furious cucumber, colocynt, drug auran, etc.
It should be understood that the above plants contain poisonous substances, and therefore their dosage is strictly limited.
Anti-inflammatory and antitumor effect is also famous for the fruits of Japanese Sophora, radish seeds, clover, elder, and saber. And as immunomodulators for T-cell lymphoma, you can use extracts of ginseng, echinacea,, elleuterococcus. Do not lag behind them and such popular plants as nettles, calendula, plantain, dandelion, string.
As for homeopathy, it does not undertake to cure completely aggressive malignant tumors, but some of its remedies are quite suitable as additional and preventive. So, if after the traditional treatment of malignant lymphoma there are exacerbations. A homoeopathic doctor can prescribe a long-term intake of homeopathic preparations Barium carbonicum (5 granules under the tongue 2 times a day) and Conium (7 pellets before bedtime).
As antitumor drugs, Carcinosinum and Phytolyacca have proven themselves, and as an immunostimulant Echinacea compositum, Mucosa compositum, Edas-308, Galium-Hel and other homeopathic medicines are used.