Symptoms of high blood pressure

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 16.04.2020

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Considering the main symptoms of high blood pressure, it should be recalled that during each working cycle of our pump for pumping blood (that is, with every contraction of the heart), its pressure (pressure) is constantly changing: with a contraction of the heart (systole), blood pressure is maximal, and when relaxing (diastole) - the minimum.

Our arteries participate in this process not only as a "pipeline" for the supply of blood: their elastic walls reduce the degree of difference between systolic and diastolic pressures. In addition, due to the elasticity of the walls of the arteries, the blood flow does not stop and at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle.

26% of our compatriots fixed the phrase "jumped pressure" in the lexicon, since according to official data of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, in our country there are 12 million citizens diagnosed with this pathology. And all over the world, according to statistics of the World Health Organization, the cause of 13% of all deaths is hypertension - high blood pressure.

In our circulatory system circulates 5-6 liters of blood. And the most significant indicator of its functioning is arterial pressure, that is, the pressure of blood on the walls of the arteries.

For systolic pressure, the norm is considered to be 120 mm Hg. St., and for diastolic - 80 mm Hg. Art. A norm of pulse pressure (that is, the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) is an indicator of 30-40 mm Hg. Art.

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Age features of high blood pressure

For people of the middle age category, the first signs of high blood pressure are expressed in persistent indices when it is measured - 120-140 / 80-90 mm Hg. And pressure exceeding 140/90 mm Hg. Art., physicians are already attributed to signs of overt hypertension (or hypertension).

There are three degrees of increase in blood pressure. At I degree, the systolic blood pressure is 140-160 mm Hg. St., diastolic - 90-100 mm Hg. Art. At the second degree - 160-180 / 100-110 mm Hg. Art. The systolic blood pressure index at the III degree rises to 180 mm Hg. Art. And above, and the figures for diastolic blood pressure go beyond 110 mm Hg. Art.

As experts point out, the symptoms of high blood pressure of the 1st degree may not have a clear clinical picture and are manifested by an irregular and short-term increase in blood pressure, which quickly returns to normal. However, with a completely satisfactory state of health, a person sometimes complains of heaviness in the head and pain in the occipital part of the head, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea and sleep disturbances.

Symptoms of high blood pressure of II degree are manifested in the form of frequent intense headaches with nausea, dizziness and sensation of "hot flashes" to the head, quick fatigue and insomnia. And for grade III increase in blood pressure, characteristic signs are all the symptoms listed above, plus vision impairment, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate and swelling. That is, it clarifies which body system has become the main "target" of the pathological process of deregulation of blood pressure - the heart, brain or kidneys. And then doctors diagnose one of the forms of hypertension. If the patient has tachycardia, pain in the region of the heart and shortness of breath, then this is the heart. If the morning strong headaches (in the back of the head), dizziness and visual impairment, it's the brain. And when a person with symptoms of high blood pressure, among other things, pursue thirst and dysuria (dysuria), then the kidneys were affected.

In addition, blood pressure can really "jump" - suddenly and abruptly. In this case, an ambulance doctor (which must be called!) Definitely diagnoses a hypertensive crisis if there are such symptoms of high blood pressure: acute headache (in the nape or spilled), nausea, vomiting, shrouding or flashing of "flies" before the eyes, frustration vision, rapid pulse, shortness of breath and chest pain, loss of consciousness. And this condition can cause a stroke (cerebral hemorrhage) or myocardial infarction.

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Symptoms of increased cardiac pressure

Normally, the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values - pulse or cardiac pressure - is 40 mm Hg. Art. Symptoms of increased cardiac pressure in the form of dyspnea, cardiac arrhythmia and swelling of the lower limbs, according to clinical practice, indicate serious problems of the cardiovascular system of the body, in the first place, those who are over 50.

Since the index of pulse blood pressure gives an idea of the state of hemodynamics, then its increase to 60 mm Hg. Art. Can be caused by stenosis or insufficiency of aortic valves, atherosclerosis (aortic stiffness), increased intracranial pressure, endocarditis, anemia, hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms of high blood pressure in the elderly

It is estimated that the symptoms of high blood pressure in the elderly at the age of 65 and older - alone or in combination with other diseases - are present in at least 55-60% of patients.

High blood pressure levels are manifested in the same way as described above. But at this age, only systolic blood pressure is very often increased, and the lower, that is, diastolic, remains within the norm (90 mm Hg) or lower. In this case, there is an increase in pulse pressure - the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Symptoms of increased systolic pressure (or isolated systolic hypertension) are associated with age-related changes in the vascular system that lead to sclerotization (loss of elasticity) of the aorta and major arteries. The clinical picture of this type of arterial hypertension is characterized by headache, noise and ripple in the head, dizziness (especially when changing the position of the body), frequent short-term loss of consciousness (fainting), sleep disturbances, dyspnea, pressing and constrictive pain in the heart, intermittent claudication (with atherosclerosis of the vessels of the legs). This type of high blood pressure is the main cause of strokes and acute heart failure.

Much less often, only diastolic blood pressure, which forms the walls of blood vessels, is elevated. If there are symptoms of increased diastolic pressure - weakness, headaches, dizziness, general malaise - this indicates problems with the blood vessels. With an increased diastolic blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels, the blood flow in the heart is disturbed, which leads to irreversible changes in the heart muscle - its overstrain and a decrease in the contractile function. In addition, an isolated elevated diastolic blood pressure may be a sign of the presence of kidney diseases in a person.

Symptoms of high blood pressure in adolescents

The dependence of blood pressure on age is obvious: at birth, the systolic BP index of the baby is 70-75 mm Hg. By the year, it grows to 90 mm Hg. Art. By 9-10 years of age, arterial pressure in physically healthy children of normal growth grows to 100/65 mm Hg. To 12 years - up to 120/80 mm Hg. Art. And in adolescents 14-16 years old (without deviations in physical development), the normal blood pressure is 130/70 mm Hg. Art.

And the World Health Organization has proposed a uniform for all criterion of high blood pressure in adolescents with 13 years of age - the level of blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg. Art.

Symptoms of high blood pressure in adolescents begin to manifest, mainly in the pubertal period (puberty) - at 12-17 years. Increased blood pressure in adolescents is manifested by hyperhidrosis (increased sweating) and polyuria (increased urine output), tachycardia attacks, tinnitus, dizziness, headache and flushes to the face, problems with sleeping, as well as complaints of pain in the chest and epigastric region.

What should I do if I have high blood pressure?

What is usually done when there are obvious signs of the disease? Of course, contact a doctor! In the case of symptoms of high blood pressure, a visit to the clinic is more than justified, since in addition to hypertension itself, the pressure rises with congenital aortic constriction, with many renal and endocrine diseases, with adrenal pathology, brain tumors, and under the influence of certain medications. By the way, what medications you need to take - adrenoblockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, slow calcium channel blockers or adrenoblockers - can also be determined only by a doctor.

True, what to do with the symptoms of high blood pressure is useful to everyone. In particular, in the case of hypertensive crisis, you need to do the following:

  • under the tongue - a tablet of validol or nitroglycerin;
  • Restore breathing: deep breath - breath holding - slow exhalation (do lying, repeat several times);
  • put caviar on mustots;
  • 15 minutes hold in hot water (not above + 45 ° C) feet feet or hands.
  • Take 30 drops of alcohol tincture of valerian, motherwort or hawthorn.
  • at a headache chemist's menthol oil to spread whiskey, a forehead, behind ears, a nape; You can also take an anesthetic drug to stop the attack of a headache.

But in order to keep your blood pressure in norm and not to provoke the appearance of various diseases, first of all, ischemic heart disease, you need:

  • to get rid of extra pounds and thereby lower the level of cholesterol in the blood;
  • walk, ride a bicycle, swim in the pool or just do exercises in the morning;
  • Do not eat greasy and reduce the amount of salt in the food;
  • drink enough water - at least 1.5 liters, but the use of alcoholic beverages minimize (a day not more than 350 ml of beer, or 120 ml of wine, or 30 ml of something stronger);
  • lean on vegetables and fruits, replenishing your body with potassium;
  • quit smoking.
  • take pills from high blood pressure.

Perhaps you will say: it's so simple! Indeed, it is simple. But then why do millions of people, having symptoms of high blood pressure, do not do the simplest things for their own health?

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