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Cardiologist

A cardiologist is a doctor whose job is connected with the diagnosis, treatment and prescription of necessary preventive measures for various diseases of the heart muscle and blood vessels: arrhythmias, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and many others.

In medicine, there are many industries aimed at identifying and treating individual organs of the human body. Cardiology is a medical science that is based on the study of the structure and functioning of the cardiovascular system.

All organs in our body are closely interrelated, therefore, cardiology is also associated with other areas of medicine, for example, endocrinology. For the most accurate diagnosis of a heart condition, a cardiologist assigns to the patient all kinds of studies, including angiography, ultrasound echocardiography, electrocardiography, etc. Mostly, the cardiologist appoints a patient for medical treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system. However, if additional research is needed to clarify the diagnosis and surgical intervention, the patient is referred to a surgical inpatient for another cardiosurgeon specialist .

If symptoms indicate a malfunction in the heart, you need to contact the cardiologist as soon as possible.

When should I go to a cardiologist?

A cardiologist is a doctor who specializes in various diseases and problems associated with cardiac dysfunction. Regular visits to this doctor should be the norm for every person who cares about their health. Considering how important the normal work of the heart is for a person's life, ignoring the timely consultation of a cardiologist is an inexcusable oversight.

When should I go to a cardiologist? It is difficult to get an answer to this question as a whole. However, there are certain symptoms and signs that indicate such a need. Among them:

  • pain of any type and intensity, both in the heart and behind the breastbone, most often arising during physical exertion and disappearing after its termination; 
  • increase of blood pressure by more than 140/90 mm Hg. P. 
  • frequent shortness of breath, especially during exercise or in a horizontal position; 
  • sensation of various kinds of irregularities in the work of the heart; 
  • tachycardia (heart palpitations more than 100 beats per minute); 
  • bradycardia (too low heart rate - less than 50 beats per minute); 
  • puffiness, most often on legs; 
  • general weakness of the body, excessive sweating, dizziness, as well as increased fatigue; 
  • syncope, as well as pre-fainting conditions that occur without special reasons; 
  • Hypertonic disease, manifested as hypertensive crises; 
  • rheumatism; 
  • planning of pregnancy.

Follow-up with a cardiologist should include patients with hypertension, arrhythmia, heart defects, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, patients who underwent myocardial infarction, as well as pregnant women with heart problems.

The reason for visiting a cardiologist is also a hereditary factor. If the family had or have close relatives suffering from heart and vascular diseases, this is an excuse for diagnosing the organism and timely detection of hereditary pathology in this area.

It should be noted that in our time, cardiological problems concern not only the elderly, but also young people. This is primarily due to the rhythm of modern life, the high level of everyday stress, poor ecology and a sedentary lifestyle. Coming out of this, doctors recommend visiting a cardiologist, starting from the age of 35 years.

What tests should I take when I go to a cardiologist?

The cardiologist during the consultation is obliged to examine the patient and listen carefully to his complaints, but more thorough diagnosis of cardiovascular disease should be carried out by putting all the necessary tests that will identify the main problem of the ailment

What tests should I take when I go to a cardiologist? The doctor himself determines their direction and type. However, in most cases, among the main tests that allow you to make the correct diagnosis, you can identify the following: 

  • general clinical blood and urine tests; 
  • blood chemistry; 
  • blood glucose level; 
  • bilirubin common and direct; 
  • analysis for total cholesterol (including HDL); 
  • alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase; 
  • urea; 
  • neopterin and creatinine; 
  • alkaline photosphere; 
  • gamma-glutamyltransferase; 
  • analysis on triglycerides.

In some cases, there is a need for an x-ray of the patient's chest.

In addition to the above tests, the cardiologist has the right to prescribe various additional tests and tests: ECG, including with a load (treadmill test or bicycle ergometer), computed tomography, echocardiography (EchoCG or ultrasound of the heart), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR or MRI), scintigraphy, coronarography heart, etc. It all depends on the individual characteristics of the course and symptoms of the disease.

What methods of diagnosis does the cardiologist use?

The cardiologist uses various types of diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, which allow you to diagnose as soon as possible and to establish the cause of the development of a particular pathology. Thus, the goal is achieved: to determine the stage of the disease and to begin intensive therapy aimed at eliminating the symptoms and the main problems associated with violations in the work of the heart muscle. Timely diagnosis allows in many cases to save a person's life, especially when he needs an urgent heart operation.

What methods of diagnosis does the cardiologist use? First of all, you can note those that are aimed at detecting malfunctions in the work of the heart muscle: 

  • electrocardiogram; 
  • echocardiography; 
  • angiography; 
  • monitoring of blood pressure; 
  • cardiorisk; 
  • genetic markers aimed at determining the disease (with their help can identify CHD, atherosclerosis, hypertension, as well as myocardial infarction); 
  • markers of autoimmune heart disease; 
  • daily cardiogram of the myocardium (so-called "Holter monitoring"); 
  • Diagnosis of various kinds of myocardiopathy.

Based on the results of the above diagnostic methods, the cardiologist determines what will be the subsequent treatment of an established cardiovascular disease.

What does the cardiologist do?

The cardiologist specializes in problems related to the work of the cardiovascular system. Nowadays, heart diseases occupy a leading position among other diseases, which most often lead to fatal outcomes.

What does the cardiologist do? First of all, the diagnosis of heart and vascular problems, as well as the treatment of the cardiovascular disease identified as a result of the examination and the appointment of preventive measures for the rehabilitation of the patient. To prescribe treatment, it is necessary, first of all, to identify the causes of the disease and establish an accurate diagnosis.

To date, you can trace the statistics of this field of medicine, and it just amazes. For a year, around 17 million people die of heart disease worldwide! Among the progressive diseases - ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. Unfortunately, the number of people suffering from heart disease is increasing every year, and the age of patients is decreasing. That is why timely consultation with a cardiologist is so important in order to prevent the development of a dangerous disease.

It should be noted that it is the irresponsible attitude to one's own health that becomes the main cause of heart problems. The cardiologist is called upon to help in time to detect the disease and find ways to treat it.

What diseases does the cardiologist treat?

Cardiologist as a specialist in the field of cardiology not only diagnoses diseases of the cardiovascular system, but is also actively involved in the rehabilitation of patients who have experienced various degrees of acute cardiac disease. If you have any symptoms that cause serious reasons for the experience, you must visit the cardiologist's office.

What diseases does the cardiologist treat? Among the most common heart ailments that are in the competence of this specialist, we can note the following:

  • IHD (ischemic heart disease); 
  • heart defects (both congenital and acquired); 
  • heart failure of different etiologies; 
  • arrhythmias (among them - incomplete blockade of the heart, as well as tachycardia, bradycardia, etc.); 
  • angina caused by acute insufficiency and manifested in the form of bouts of pain; 
  • aortic aneurysms; 
  • thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, leading to obstruction of blood vessels; 
  • carditis (inflammatory lesions that occur in different parts of the heart muscle); 
  • heart attacks and pre-infarction states.

In addition to the aforementioned heart diseases, there are a number of other problems related to interruptions in the work of the myocardium. They can be associated with the presence of some illness related to another area of medicine. In any case, if the slightest deviations in the work of the cardiovascular system are found, it is necessary to consult a cardiologist. This is the most optimal solution in eliminating negative processes and their complete stabilization.

Advices of a cardiologist

The cardiologist is called upon to determine the cardiovascular disease, prescribe his treatment, and also to ensure that the patient undergoes a course of rehabilitation after suffering a heart disease. This is a very important step, because the final stage in the treatment of any disease is a cycle of actions aimed at eliminating factors that can cause a second attack. First of all, the patient should think about a healthy lifestyle, abandon bad habits, do physical exercises and take care of the quality of nutrition.

The advice of a cardiologist, aimed at preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases, can be as follows:

  • To avoid the development of hypertension (elevated blood pressure), you need to monitor the weight and not allow an increase in body weight. The risk of hypertensive crisis is six times higher in full people than in people with normal weight. Reducing body weight leads to lower blood pressure. 
  • It is necessary to limit the consumption of sugar, sweet foods, as well as salt (sodium chloride). Excess sugar in the body leads to a blockage of blood vessels due to the accumulation of carbohydrates on their walls, and salt attracts water and is deposited in the vessels, causing them to swell and spasm. To limit the hazardous effects of sodium chloride on the human body, you should increase the intake of foods that contain potassium. First of all, it's fresh fruits and vegetables. 
  • Great value for the proper functioning of the heart is the rejection of bad habits: first of all, smoking and excessive intake of alcohol. These harmful factors provoke the development of hypertension. 
  • It is necessary to learn the methods of psychoemotional self-control, and also to limit conflicts and stresses as much as possible. Good for this purpose help methods of auto-training aimed at calming, relaxing and increasing the energy reserves of the human body. 
  • Outside the exacerbation of the disease it is recommended to use cyclic exercise: walking (preferably up to 4-6 km per day), swimming, running, cycling. Naturally, before starting such exercises, the patient should consult with a doctor. The load should be reduced if there are shortness of breath, dizziness, dizziness, irregular heartbeats. The normal condition is lightness in the body and pleasant fatigue. 
  • The treatment prescribed by a cardiologist should be regular and sometimes be lifelong. The minimum dose of the drug should be taken even with the normalization of blood pressure. Only with prolonged stabilization of the state can begin the withdrawal of drugs. 
  • It is necessary to be able to distinguish between symptoms of hypertensive crisis. This condition is accompanied by a severe headache, pain in the left side of the chest, nausea and vomiting, weakening of vision, the appearance of "flies" before the eyes. When observing such signs, you should take a horizontal position, measure blood pressure, take a captopril tablet (0.25 mg) at an elevated rate and call a doctor.

Human health depends entirely on his attitude to his life. In this issue, the main thing is to show responsibility and strictly fulfill all the prescriptions of a cardiologist. Then the heart will work stably and without failures!

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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