Salt is a white powder, characterized by a characteristic salty taste. This is a known chemical compound, which is represented by sodium and chlorine ions. It has the ability to react in the human body and cause various reactions. Often becomes a cause of poisoning. As a result of the reaction, new substances can form ions, which do not always possess properties beneficial for the body. The substance is dangerous not only for humans, but also for animals in large quantities. However, without it, normal functioning of the body is also not possible.
The main property is the ability to bind water. There is a chemical reaction, which is accompanied by the formation of sodium ions. A large accumulation of sodium ions in the body disrupts the water balance of the blood. This has negative consequences for the body as a whole. Violated the basic metabolic processes, biochemical parameters. Appears fluid retention in the tissues, develops their puffiness. The danger consists also in the fact that the active displacement of potassium salts from erythrocytes occurs. This entails a violation of the nervous and endocrine status, the regulation of the basic functions is impaired.
There is pain in the stomach and intestines. The danger of poisoning is that the salt delays the fluid in the body, as a result of which the water-salt balance is violated, normal biochemical indices are violated. The consequence is the strongest swelling of tissues, internal organs.
The second negative effect of salt on the body is that excessive accumulation of salt entails a violation of normal digestion. There is irritation of the walls of the stomach and intestines, the osmotic pressure of blood rises, and the blood pressure in the vessels also changes. This creates an additional burden on the heart, kidneys, liver.
Complications and consequences
It is dangerous not only acute, but also chronic poisoning with salt, during which there is a violation of metabolic processes, a systematic increase in blood pressure. This results in the development of a stable hypertension. The most dangerous complication of this disease is stroke, myocardial infarction. Excessive accumulation of salt in the body can lead to the development of osteoporosis and even stomach cancer. In addition, the intraocular pressure significantly increases, which entails various pathologies of the eye, a decrease in vision.
Diagnostics of the poisoning with salt
The diagnosis is simple enough. It is based on anamnesis and clinical picture. Usually, no additional research is needed. In rare cases, laboratory tests are used to confirm the diagnosis.
The essence of the treatment consists in the appointment of funds aimed at neutralizing the salt, its excretion from the body. Gastric lavage is carried out , sorbents are used. The abundant drink is shown. Symptomatic and supportive therapy is performed. An important component of treatment is the inclusion in the diet of milk, homeopathic remedies and vegetable decoctions. Intramuscularly , calcium chloride or calcium gluconate must be administered . If there is a violation of cardiac activity, it is recommended to treat with caffeine and other medicines.
First aid is reduced to the fact that a person needs to give a lot of water to drink. This will eliminate signs of dehydration. It is necessary to induce vomiting that will allow to get rid of the consequences of intoxication, to remove excess salt from the body, to prevent its further absorption. Then you need to rinse the stomach. This should be done in the conditions of the medical institution, therefore, when the first signs of poisoning appear, you need to call an ambulance as soon as possible. Various medicines, a light manganese solution, are used for washing.
After this, the victim is laid, covered with heat and given a drink enveloping agent, which will restore the mucous membranes, prevent further absorption of salt. Well suited jelly, oat broth, milk, raw egg. If necessary, prescribe sorbents, conduct supportive and restorative therapy. About 3-4 days the food should be without salt at all. It is necessary to adhere to a strict diet.
To avoid poisoning, you should not abuse salt. Especially on this you need to pay attention to women during pregnancy, as the sensitivity to salt and other chemicals decreases. Therefore, pregnant often transplant food, which is the cause of many pathologies, ranging from edema, and ending with severe gestosis and premature birth.
Последнее обновление: 23.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
What do we know about salt? It is an acute taste of natural origin, coming on sale in the form of small transparent crystals. It must be said that in the kitchen salt is an indispensable food additive used in cooking most of the dishes and preserving them.