Throughout life, a woman has a specific hormonal background, which is due to the concentration of major female sex hormones - estrogens and progestogens (progesterone). These hormones do not immediately regulate the basic processes of the body, because a woman for all her life is subject to change, and her whole body is subjected to several successive stages of development. First the girl is in the period of newborn, when all the systems and organs develop and begin to contact the external environment. During this period, the ovaries already have all the eggs that are in a "dormant" position. Next - the period of childhood, then the period of sexual development, in which all secondary sexual characteristics develop and the girl matures for the continuation of the genus. Then the period of puberty, which lasts about thirty years. All ends with menopause - an involution of the reproductive system. Climax is a physiological process of changes in the female reproductive system, in which hormonal disorders occur in the body. The climacteric period is conditionally divided:
- premenopause - the period from 45 years to the onset of menopause;
- Menopause is the period of the last menstruation, the average age is about fifty years;
- Postmenopause - the period from the last menstruation to the end of a woman's life.
All these periods are characterized by their own characteristics, which you need to know in order to regulate the state of the body and know exactly when something is broken.
Premenopause is characterized by:
- The involution of the higher regulatory center is the hypothalamus, which is characterized by a gradual decrease in the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to the effect of estrogens, which violates its regulatory function by the principle of reverse regulation.
- The level of pituitary hormones increases - follicle-stimulating and luteinizing, which in future can promote the development of various benign processes in the uterus in the form of fibroids, fibroids.
- In the adrenal gland, the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine is increased due to disturbances in the normal regulation of the hypothalamus function of peripheral organs.
- The number of sensitive special receptors to estrogens decreases in the ovary and in the uterus, which contributes to the violation of the regulation of these organs.
- In the ovaries, the most specific changes occur in the form of follicular atresia, the destruction of the membranes, the death of oocytes and the preservation of only the stroma, which helps to reduce the amount of secreting estrogen. This, in turn, disrupts the feedback to the hypothalamus, which increases the changes more.
- There is insufficient stimulation of the pituitary gland and the release of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones is broken, which leads to anovulatory cycle without isolation of the oocyte.
As a consequence of all these processes - there is not enough concentration of hormones and their alternation for the next normal menstruation, and menstruation does not occur - this is the period of menopause. In this period, under the influence of a decrease in the level of sex hormones, various pathological reactions can be observed, as a manifestation of menopause. But in the event that these changes at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries and uterus occur gradually, then no subjective sensations and disorders from the nervous system, cardiovascular system and others - is not observed. This is the basis of the development of menopause without symptoms.
Therefore, the main cause and, rather, a pathogenetic mechanism for the development of menopause without symptoms is a normal gradual decrease in the level of sex hormones. Coming from this, it is possible to identify the factors that influence the development of menopause without symptoms. These include:
- The normal beginning of the girl is menarche;
- Regular sex life with one partner;
- The normal course of pregnancy and the absence of abortions or miscarriages in the anamnesis;
- The interval between pregnancies is not less than three years;
- Breastfeeding is not less than six months after the birth of the child;
- Absence in the anamnesis of inflammatory diseases and neoplasms.
All these factors contribute to the normal regulation of the ovario-menstrual cycle, which in turn affects the regulation of menopause and its normal course.
Thus, menopause without symptoms is accompanied only by a menses violation without concomitant pathologies on the part of other organs. Menstruation becomes irregular: usually one month is normal, and two or three months are not. These are typical signs of the onset of menopause. But there may be other options: profuse menstruation once, then there are no six months or scant excretions every month with a gradual decrease in their number. These are the main manifestations in this period that can disturb a woman, and other changes are not characteristic.
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