Enlargement or tightening of the lymph nodes is a situation that every adult has experienced at least once in his life. Although there is something to hide, like many times contemplated attentive parents of their children, most often against the background of some inflammatory pathology, characteristic of childhood. Quite often the enlargement of the lymph nodes points to some long-known, but not life-threatening pathology. But not in the case when the doctor observes the patient's enlargement of the supraclavicular lymph nodes, which can with a high probability indicate the development of cancer.
What is a lymph node and what is its role
Lymphonoduses are small gland sized, something reminiscent of beans or beans. They are scattered throughout the human body along the passage of the lymphatic vessels.
The main goal of the lymph nodes is the movement of lymph from the periphery to the center. But besides this they are original filters that purify lymph from foreign and harmful "impurities" in the form of toxins, viruses or bacteria and support the work of the immune system of the organism of which they are a part.
Immediately in the lymph nodes there is a process of ripening of white blood cells, called lymphocytes, which just destroy the filtered material, not allowing it to spread throughout the body.
Lymph nodes in the body can be located either one at a time or in groups. There are the following types of lymph nodes:
Occipital, anterolateral, anterolateral, anterolateral, submandibular, supraclavicular, located along the sternocleidomastoid muscle with a place of localization in the region of the head, neck and shoulder girdle.
Axillary with localization in the armpits.
Inguinal, which can be detected above and below the inguinal canal.
Elbow and popliteal lymph nodes with localization in the area of the bend of the upper or lower extremities (elbow or knee).
In the normal state, most of these lymph nodes (with the exception of inguinal and axillary) are not detectable by palpation. Their increase to a sizeable size occurs only during illness.
For example, supraclavicular lymph nodes, which are also called Virchov's knots, can not be felt by a healthy person with the help of fingers, they simply are not probed. If suddenly they manage to grope, then we are dealing with an increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes due to the development of some serious pathology (often from the field of oncology).
In addition to the above, there are also such lymph nodes that can not be detected during palpation, even in an inflamed condition. But we do not talk about this in this article.
Most often, one can observe an increase in a single lymph node or a small group of lymph nodes located in the immediate vicinity. This situation is observed in 75% of patients with a preliminary diagnosis of lymphadenopathy.
Significantly less (in only 25% of cases) not just one but several groups of lymph nodes increase immediately, which usually indicates a generalized infection or tumor.
Approximately in 1 person out of 100, the increase in lymph nodes is associated with the development of malignant processes in the body. Especially significant in this respect is the increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes, which is usually associated with the tumor process either in the lymph node itself, or in the thoracic or abdominal cavity.
So, for example, such a serious disease as lymphogranulomatosis, in 75% of cases began in the increase of supraclavicular or cervical lymph nodes against the background of the absolute health of the patient's body. To be clear, lymphogranulomatosis is a disease related to malignant lymphomas (a type of cancer of the blood that develops in the lymphatic tissue) and occurs more often than others (about 30% of the total number of patients and lymphomas).
The increase of supraclavicular lymph nodes is the most common symptom in tumor processes in the chest and peritoneum. In patients over 40 years of age, it occurs in 9 out of 10 cases. Among young patients with oncology, swelling of the lymph nodes in the supraclavicular fossa is diagnosed in every fourth patient.
Causes of the enlargement of supraclavicular lymph nodes
The increase in lymph nodes in the body, and there are about 600 of them, in the overwhelming majority of cases is an indicator of the health of the organism, or rather, the presence in it of certain pathological factors. The lymph node may increase in size both as a result of trauma, and under the influence of the bacterial factor.
In this case, the pathological process can be localized either in the gland itself, or in organs located near the lymph node, from which it receives lymph with a pathogenic microflora.
The causes of enlarged lymph nodes, including supraclavicular ones, can be:
infection of the body or the lymph node itself,
bacterial infections (brucellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, etc., including infection, brought as a result of scratching the cat),
Malignant neoplasms that give metastases to the lymph nodes.
Supraclavicular lymph nodes and cancer
The increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes, as the most common symptom of cancer, requires special attention. In this situation, doctors in the first place try to exclude cancer in its various manifestations.
Malignant neoplasms localized in one particular area have a bad habit over time to spread to other organs, both nearby and remote. This process is called metastasis.
One of the most dangerous ways of spreading cancer cells is to carry them along with the lymph (lymphogenous pathway). From the beginning pathologically mutated cells enter the lymphatic vessel, and from there, along with the current, lymphs are carried along the lymphatic system. They can settle in both nearby lymph nodes, and move on to the distant ones, where they settle.
In the supraclavicular lymph nodes most often fall pathological cells from the organs located in the abdominal or thoracic cavity, because of what previously not palpable glands become palpable. To determine the location of the tumor, the location of the enlarged lymph node plays a role.
Thus, an increase in the supraclavicular lymph node on the left with a high probability indicates the localization of the malignant process in the abdominal cavity. Most often this is a stomach cancer, which, by the way, is pre-diagnosed by the increased supraclavicular lymph nodes on the left side of the body. But this symptom is also characteristic for other cancers that affect the ovaries in women, the prostate and testicles in men, as well as the bladder, kidneys, pancreas, intestines.
The increase of the supraclavicular lymph nodes on the right usually indicates the development of tumors in the thoracic region. This symptom is typical for lung cancer, esophagus, mammary glands, but sometimes occurs in prostate cancer.
The probability of an increase in the lymph node due to ingress of cancer cells into it is influenced by the following factors:
age of the patient (after 40 years the chance of lymphogenous spread of the tumor increases),
the size of the tumor (a large tumor gives metastases much more often small),
localization of a tumor or a type of cancer (For example, the lymphogenous pathway is a favorite way of spreading skin cancer - melanoma),
the presence of chronic diseases that significantly weaken the immune system of the body,
area of tumor growth (metastases mainly produce tumors that grow into the organ wall, while an increase in the size of the tumor in the lumen of the organ rarely results in metastasis).
Increased supraclavicular lymph nodes in osteochondrosis
Well, let's put aside all our fears aside and return to a more common and less dangerous pathology than cancer, which can also cause an increase in the lymph nodes in the neck and shoulder region. We are talking about all known osteochondrosis, which affects about 70% of the population of middle age.
The increase in cervical and supraclavicular lymph nodes in osteochondrosis is associated with the pathology of the cervical region, in which the deformation of the vertebrae and cartilage in the neck causes the entrapment of the corresponding vessels and trauma to the lymph nodes. In this case, there is not just an increase in lymph nodes, but also inflammation in them.
The increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes and their soreness in this case suggests that an infection has entered the lymphatic system, with which the body began its struggle. Precisely to say, where the source of infection is located on the eye can not be determined, special diagnostic studies are required. Osteochondrosis is only one of the possible and common causes of enlarged lymph nodes.
The risk factors for the development of lymphadenopathy include:
hypothermia of the body,
taking certain medications (cephalosporins, penicillin, sulfonamides, gold preparations, etc.), which have a negative effect on the lymph glands,
hereditary predisposition to the development of tumor processes,
an unfavorable ecological situation.
The increase of only the supraclavicular lymph nodes is a reason for examining organs such as the neck, chest, mammary glands, internal organs located in the thoracic and abdominal cavity.
If along with the supraclavicular lymph nodes there is an increase in other groups of lymph glands, it is logical to suspect the presence in the body of a generalized infection that affects various organs and systems: mononucleosis, streptococcal infections, measles, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, leukemia, lymphoma, AIDS, etc.
The increase (inflammation) of the lymph node in most cases indicates that the lymphocytes can not cope with their task, as a result, too much harmful substances are accumulated in the lymph node, entering the body from outside or formed during its life.
In addition to bacterial infection, toxins and viruses, cancer cells capable of enhanced polypheny (multiplication) can also "jump in" into the lymph node. They, like other "negative", are able to overflow the lymph node, causing changes in its anatomical size. But if the infectious nature of the disease does not change the shape of the lymph nodes (ideally they are bean-shaped), reflected only on their size, then the presence of malignant neoplasms gives the lymph node a rounded outline. What most often we observe with an increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes located in the region of the supraclavicular fossa.
The increase in lymph nodes in medicine is called lymphadenopathy. This name does not indicate a specific diagnosis, but preliminarily describes a symptom that is likely to indicate the development of one or more diseases, ranging from common cold and ending with tumor processes.
Depending on the number of swollen lymph nodes, the following types of lymphadenopathy are spilled:
Local (when a single nodule is enlarged, if it is a supraclavicular node, there is a high probability that a change in its size is associated with the tumor),
Regional (an increase in 1-2 groups of adjacent lymph nodes, it is associated with infectious diseases of nearby organs)
Generalized (several groups of lymph nodes are enlarged at once, arises in pathologies that exert a great influence on various organs and systems of the human body).
If the lymph node is not just enlarged, but also inflamed, doctors talk about lymphadenitis, which can also have many causes.
Symptoms of the enlargement of supraclavicular lymph nodes
Lymphonoduses in a healthy person have the shape of a bean and a size that ranges from 1 to 1.5 cm. This also applies to supraclavicular lymph nodes that are located in the supraclavicular fossa and are not palpated in the usual state. Those. Should not only cause a significant increase in the size of the lymph node, but also that it can generally be felt when palpation.
If the enlarged nodule remains soft enough and mobile, and when pressed on it, a moderate soreness is felt, most likely we are dealing with an infectious disease that caused the lymph node enlargement. If the nodule is rather dense and painless, its increase is most likely associated with malignant neoplasms in the human body. A stone-like lymph node indicates a cancer metastasis, and a tight, but elastic, lymphoma.
A dangerous symptom is also a change in the shape of the lymph node to a circular one. This is likely to indicate a tumor character of the disease.
In any case, swelling and inflammation of the lymph nodes is the first sign of the development of pathological processes in the body. In this case, depending on the disease that caused the increase of supraclavicular and other lymph nodes, there may be other unpleasant symptoms, such as:
a slight or strong rise in temperature, which subsequently lasts a long time,
hyperhidrosis (with sweating increased mainly at night),
weight loss with normal nutrition,
In most cases, the increase in lymph nodes is accompanied by a change in the size of the liver and spleen, which also increase.
The enlargement of the lymph nodes, including the supraclavicular ones, does not seem to be such a dangerous situation if the problem is solved only by eliminating the cause. It's another matter how timely a person resorted to diagnosing and treating both lymph nodes themselves, and the reasons that caused a change in their size and shape.
If at the first stage of the development of pathology we have only a slight lymph node consolidation, then later inflammatory and even suppurative processes may begin in the lymphoid tissue, which can lead to purulent melting of the lymph node (abscess) and the formation of fistulas.
Eventually, the spread of the purulent contents of the lymphatic vessel into the blood can trigger sepsis (blood poisoning) with the development of the inflammatory process throughout the body, requiring surgical intervention and active multicomponent therapy.
Another dangerous complication of pathology is a violation of lymph drainage, manifested in the form of swelling of the extremities, disturbance of skin nutrition and the appearance on it of trophic changes, pathologies such as erysipelas, keratosis, etc.
Consequences of tumor processes can be considered the germination of the walls of the lymphatic vessel with cancer cells with a high probability of bleeding and the development of tobcomflex veins in the affected area, as well as the spread of cancer cells lymphogenically throughout the body.
Diagnostics of the enlargement of supraclavicular lymph nodes
Since the increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes can have many causes and consequences dangerous for human health and life, the doctor should pay special attention to its diagnosis. To be limited only by external examination and listening to patient complaints is impossible in any case. After all, cancerous tumors associated with an increase in lymph nodes in the clavicle, in most cases, can last for a long time almost asymptomatic, limited only to lymph node tightening.
Many infectious diseases can also have a long incubation period, during which an enlarged painful lymph node may be the only symptom and the first sign of the disease.
Nevertheless, the diagnosis of an increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes begins precisely with a primary examination of the patient with palpation of enlarged glands. When a person is healthy, it is almost impossible to detect the location of supraclavicular lymph nodes. But if there is an infection in the body or there is a different pathological process, the lymph nodes change their size, shape and consistency, so they can easily be found in supraclavicular fossa.
By the way, these parameters are diagnostically very important. By the size of the lymph node it is possible not only to judge the presence of some pathology, but also to determine the degree of its severity. In adults, the presence of diseases is indicated by an increase in the size of the lymph nodes more than 1-1.5 cm, in children - more than 2 cm.
The shape of the lymph node and its consistency help to approach the cause of the pathological increase in size. As already mentioned, the rounded shape and dense consistency gives reason to suggest tumor malignant or benign diseases. Unchanged shape and soft consistency indicate an infectious cause.
When palpation, the patient is either in a sitting position with the shoulders down, or lies on the back. If there are difficulties with the search for a lymph node, a Valsava test is performed.
Conducting a Valsava test (a breath test that is performed with closed nasal passages and oral cavity, causing tension of different muscle groups) helps not only to detect trigger points, but also to establish a connection between their appearance and the presence in the body of other pathologies, for example, a herniated disc.
When palpation, the doctor pays attention to the soreness of the compaction. The inflammatory nature of the compaction is always accompanied by pain of different intensity, and the tumor does not give painful sensations. Nevertheless, if there are bleeding in the necrotic center of the lymph node or a purulent process inside it, the lymph node may be painful even in malignant tumors.
So to judge the existing pathology, only by a modified and painful lymph node it would be wrong. It is necessary to take into account the age of the patient (older people are more susceptible to tumor processes), and the history of the disease, indicating the presence of chronic diseases and hereditary predisposition.
From complaints of the patient it is possible to learn about various signs of the disease, which caused a pathological increase of the supraclavicular lymph nodes. And external examination and palpation will help to determine the nature of changes in the lymph node.
So on the lymphadenitis (or inflammation of the lymph nodes) in the clavicle can indicate the swelling of the tissues in the supraclavicular fossa, visually expressed in the asymmetry of the shoulders, redness and increase in the temperature of the skin at the site of the lesion, pain syndrome with the movement of the shoulders and neck, also felt during swallowing, symptomatology.
Purulent lymphadenitis can manifest itself by a rapid increase in the size of the lymph node, an increase in temperature, a pronounced redness at the site of the localization of the lymph node.
Additional information about the processes occurring in the lymph node and in the body as a whole can be obtained by conducting blood tests (general and biochemical), HIV tests and viral hepatitis. In the future, if you suspect a pathology of the abdominal organs, additional urine and feces may be needed.
To methods of instrumental diagnostics with enlarged lymph nodes first of all it is necessary to include a fairly simple and informative method - ultrasound examination of supraclavicular lymph nodes (ultrasound).
Computer tomography in this situation is much less common. It is effective for the study of lymph nodes, which can not be palpated.
X-ray research is resorted even more rarely, unless the enlarged lymph node is found in a picture of the chest made on another occasion, by accident.
Other diagnostic methods include:
mediastinoscopy - endoscopic examination of the anterior mediastinum,
thoracoscopy - an endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity,
laparoscopy - examination of the organs of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis (shown in the generalized form of lymphadenopathy).
All of the above research methods give the doctor information about external changes in the lymph node, without affecting any less important structural changes. They can not detect the presence of cancer cells, determine the nature of the bacterial infection. Therefore, the last point in the diagnosis is put by methods such as biopsy (microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen, which makes it possible to detect cancer cells in it), bacteriological culture (determining the type of bacterial infection), and PCR analysis, which is considered the most accurate method for diagnosing various types of infections.
Differential diagnosis is carried out primarily to eliminate such a dangerous pathology as cancer. And then other possible causes of an increase in supraclavicular lymphonoduses with the subsequent appointment of treatment, according to the revealed pathology are already being investigated.
Treatment of the enlargement of supraclavicular lymph nodes
To start treatment of the enlargement of the supraclavicular lymph nodes before the exact diagnosis is considered not only impractical, but also dangerous. Thus, one can only exacerbate the situation by distorting the results of diagnostic studies and allowing the pathology that caused the enlargement of the lymph nodes to develop further, passing to more severe stages.
For example, with the inflammatory nature of the pathology, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs from the group of NSAIDs (Nimesil, Nimid, Ibuprofen, Ketorolac, etc.) or glucocorticosteroids of SCS (Prednisolone, Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone and others .). Both types of drugs relieve swelling and pain, reduce the intensity of the inflammatory process. They can be used in the form of tablets, injections or ointments.
However, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, especially SCS, in malignant neoplasms can play a cruel joke, disguising the symptoms of the disease and thus postponing their treatment for a while, allowing cancer to take new positions through metastasis.
If the increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis, then taking steroids can only exacerbate the situation, worsening the patient's condition.
If a bacterial infection becomes the culprit of inflammation of the lymph node, a course of antibiotic therapy is prescribed . Antibacterial drugs are selected taking into account the causative agent of infection, giving preference still to broad-spectrum antibiotics.
With staphylococcal and streptococcal infection, it is customary to prescribe antibiotics of the penicillin series (Flemoxin, Augmentin, etc.) in a weekly course. However, with these and other types of infectious agent, as well as with mixed infections, doctors often prefer nevertheless to antibiotics-cephalosporins, which have a wide spectrum of antibacterial action ("Ceftriaxone", "Suprax", "Ciprofloxacin", etc.).
In some cases, preference is given to macrolides ("Clarithromycin", "Azithromycin", etc.), the course of which is less than 3-5 days, lincosamides ("Lincomycin"), quinolones (Norfloxacin) or tetracycline antibiotics (Doxycycline ).
The increase of supraclavicular lymph nodes, which was the culprit of a viral infection, does not require special treatment. However, drugs with immunomodulatory action, which are called antiviral agents (Arbidol, Novirin, Amiksin IC, Isopronein, etc.) and vitamins can help the body to cope with infection more quickly .
Widespread popularity in the treatment of enlarged lymph nodes of different localization use external agents with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It can be as non-steroidal ointments (Diclofenac, Ketoprofen, etc.), as well as agents that have antibacterial action or improve blood circulation (ointments "Heparinic", "Ichthyol", Vishnevsky liniment).
In addition to medication, in most cases, prescribe a physiotherapy treatment, which is aimed at improving lymph flow and optimizing blood supply. Among the methods of physical therapy is:
Influence on the inflamed lymph node with an electromagnetic field of high frequency (UHF therapy).
Medicinal compresses to the affected area. As an auxiliary component that facilitates the penetration of drugs into the tissues, "Dimeskid" is used.
Electrophoresis with drugs from the groups of glucocorticosteroids (ointments and suspensions) and antibiotics.
Galvanization (the effect of a direct current of low voltage).
Laser therapy (exposure to a concentrated beam of light).
Methods of physiotherapy are effective in most pathologies that have caused the increase in lymph nodes. However, they are contraindicated in tuberculosis and suspected malignant processes. Physiotherapy is also not carried out in case of intoxication of the body or if the patient has a fever.
If the cause of enlarged lymph nodes is found in oncology or in the inflamed lymph node, the purulent process begins, the treatment tactics will be different. In the case of malignant tumors, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are prescribed. If these methods do not lead to a decrease in the size of the lymph node, surgical treatment is performed (excision of the tumor on the organs or removal of the metastasized lymph node itself).
Purulent lymphadenitis requires surgical intervention immediately after its detection. During the operation, inflamed lymph nodes open and clean out pus and necrotic tissues in them, after which they prescribe a course of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy.
Effective drugs with increasing lymph nodes
As already mentioned, drug therapy makes sense if the increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes is inflammatory, and not associated with cancer problems. In this case, usually prescribed topical anti-inflammatory therapy.
Good reviews in this regard about a drug from the NSAID called "Nimesil", which is made in the form of powder for the preparation of a suspension that is taken orally.
Method of application and dosage. The drug is recommended to take after eating, dissolving the contents of the package in half a glass of water. The recommended daily dose is 1-2 packets, which take 1 sachet per 1 reception. Duration of the drug is prescribed by the doctor, but not more than 15 days.
The drug is not prescribed for therapy of patients younger than 12 years, in the 3rd semester of pregnancy and breastfeeding. Contraindicated taking the drug and people who suffer from alcohol or drug dependence, patients with increased body temperature.
Among the pathologies in which NSAIDs are not recommended, it is worth highlighting: gastrointestinal and other bleeding (even if they occurred earlier under the action of NSAIDs), acute stages of gastrointestinal ulceration, severe blood clotting pathologies, acute and chronic heart failure in the stage of decompensation, disorders liver and kidney function, hypersensitivity to the drug and other NSAIDs.
Among the frequently occurring side effects of the drug can be identified: loosening of the stool, nausea and vomiting, increasing the level of hepatic enzymes, allergic reactions (rashes and itching), hyperhidrosis.
"Prednisolone" - SCS, also often used in the increase of lymph nodes, including supraclavicular. The preparation is produced in the form of tablets, drops, ointment, solution and powder for its preparation.
The drug has many indications for use, but contraindications can be noted only increased sensitivity to the drug and systemic fungal infections.
Take the drug in the form of tablets once a day in the morning. The recommended dosage is set by the doctor individually in each specific case and ranges from 5 to 60 mg per day (max. 200 mg).
The pediatric dose is calculated as 0.14 mg per 1 kg of the patient's weight with a reception rate of 3 or 4 times a day.
Side effects of the drug can develop either against the background of increased sensitivity to NSAIDs, or on the background of long-term use of the drug.
When bacterial infection resort to antibiotic therapy, in which preference is given to cephalosporins.
"Ceftriaxone" is a bright representative of cephalosporins, effective against most pathogenic microorganisms. It is made in the form of powder for injection and is designed to treat patients of any age, including newborns.
Dosage for patients over 12 years is 1-2 grams (maximum 4 g). Injections in most cases are done intramuscularly every 24 hours.
The infant dose is calculated according to the age of the patient. For babies up to 2 weeks of age, it is from 20 to 50 mg per 1 kg of weight, for older children - from 20 to 80 mg per kilogram of body weight 1 time per day.
It is undesirable to use the drug in the first trimester of pregnancy and in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia. Among other contraindications can be identified: inadequate liver and kidney function, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (ulcerative colitis, enteritis, etc.), increased sensitivity to the drug.
Side effects that occur more often are: diarrhea, nausea in combination with vomiting, stomatitis, various changes in the blood composition, allergic manifestations in the form of rash, itching on the skin, swelling. Sometimes there is swelling and pain at the injection site. Occasionally, patients complain of headache and dizziness, fungal infections of the genitals, fever and chills in the background of normal body temperature.
The use of alternative treatment in the case of an increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes is justified only as an auxiliary method and means for basic therapy. With the help of our grandparents' recipes, a small inflammation in the lymph nodes can be removed, but not a serious purulent process or a cancerous tumor. In addition, to combat the cause of enlarged lymph nodes may require completely different means and alternative recipes.
Here are the recipes that help with lymphadenitis, as a mild form of inflammatory process in the lymph nodes:
Bulb-tar compress. 1 tbsp. L. Chemist's tar should be mixed with the mash 1 medium onion and applied to the affected area, covered with a thin natural tissue.
For a medical compress, you can use a pharmacy or home-made alcohol tincture of echinacea. One part of the tincture is bred in 2 parts of warm water, moistened with a tissue napkin and adjusted to a sick lymph node at night.
For ingestion suitable fine natural antibacterial agent based on garlic. To make it, a large head of garlic is ground and poured with warm water in an amount of 0.5 liters. Insist 3 days, periodically mixing the composition. Take 1 tsp. Morning, afternoon and evening outside eating.
Helps with lymphadenitis and drinking of beet juice. Freshly prepared juice of one salad beet is insisted in the refrigerator for a quarter of a day. Take it on an empty stomach in the morning for half a glass of juice (or 1 glass of 50 to 50 beet juice and carrot).
Good results with inflammation of the lymph nodes show and treatment with herbs. Powder from the root of a dandelion (1 tsp 3 times a day), decoction from young shoots of pine (1 tablespoon 2 times a day), infusion of bark and leaves of hazel (50 ml 4 times a day) - effective means for internal reception. And for the compresses, the herb of St. John's wort, walnut leaves, celandine tincture, nettle, norichnik and other herbs will suit well.
With the increase of supraclavicular lymph nodes and other pathologies of the lymphatic system, the drug of choice in homeopathy is "Lymphomyosot". It is presented in the form of multicomponent homeopathic drops, which must be taken, dissolving in water (half a glass), three times a day. A single dose of the drug - from 15 to 20 drops.
Contraindications to the use of the drug are the periods of pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as hypersensitivity to at least one of the components of a multicomponent drug. Do not apply drops and to treat patients younger than 18 years.
They found their use in the treatment of lymphadenopathy and immunostimulating homeopathic remedies, such as "Ergoferon" (from 6 months of age) and "Engistol" (from 3 years). Their use is especially important in the viral etiology of diseases of the lymphatic system.
"Ergoferon" take 4 tablets during the first 2 hours, then 3 more tablets at regular intervals until the end of the day. Then the reception is carried out according to the scheme: 1 tablet 3 times a day.
"Engistol" for 2 or 3 weeks are taken under the scheme: 1 tablet 3 times a day.
Homeopathic tablets should not be chewed, they need to be kept in the mouth until they completely dissolve. It is recommended to take them outside the food intake in the absence of hypersensitivity to the components, requiring reconsideration of the appointment.
Prevention of the above-described pathology primarily involves a careful attitude to your health. It is necessary to timely and completely pass the course of treatment of infectious diseases, and it is best to take measures to prevent them.
At any indispositions it is better to consult with the doctor concerning a condition of the health than than to reap the fruits of chronic pathologies.
If unusual seals are found on the body, it is essential to consult a doctor for their examination in order to capture the cancer at an early stage if the tumor has a malignant character. But even benign neoplasms on the body require constant monitoring of the doctor.
The prognosis of such a peculiar pathology as an increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes entirely depends on the cause that caused the change in the size and shape of the lymph glands, and the timeliness of seeking help. After all, even cancer in most cases will be cured in the early stages.
And, of course, not the last aspect in this case is the accuracy of the diagnosis combined with the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment.
The increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes has many causes, both relatively safe and fraught with dangerous complications. Nevertheless, the vast majority of them can be ruled out if one cares about their health as the greatest value.
Last update: 25.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
The occipital lymph nodes are in the back of the neck. In a healthy state, they are not noticeable at all and can not be probed. But as a result of the inflammatory process, there is an increase in the occipital lymph nodes, as a result of which small rounded tubercles appear on the neck, which, when palpated, can become very painful.
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