Treatment of hypertension
Hypertension in the initial stage, when blood pressure indicators do not often exceed the norm, can be treated with non-medicament means. The first method is to control body weight and observe a low-carb and lean diet. Diet in hypertension also involves limiting the intake of salty foods, the control of the use of liquid - no more than 1.5 liters per day. Also effective is psychotherapy, autogenic training, which removes the level of general anxiety and tension. These methods are effective for the first stage of hypertension, although they can be used as auxiliary and additional elements to the main therapy of the II and III stage of hypertension.
Pharmacological means, which involves the treatment of hypertension, are prescribed according to the "stepwise" principle. They are used consistently, directing to various organs and systems, until the blood pressure is completely stabilized.
Hypertension in the first stage involves the use of diuretics (diuretics), beta-adrenoblockers, adrenergic receptor blockers for the management of tachycardia. The dose of anaprilin is calculated on the basis of anamnesis, weight and condition of the patient, as a rule, it is 80 milligrams per day. If the arterial pressure is normalized after two or three days, the dose of anaprilin is reduced, and the administration is often given every other day. As a diuretic, hypothiazide is effective, which is prescribed 25 mg once, alternating after one or two days, in order not to weaken the heart muscle. If hypertension begins to recede, a diuretic can be administered once a week. It is not uncommon for diuretics and beta-blockers to be used in connection with possible side effects (diabetes, gout or asthma), in such situations, the reception of antispasmodics is indicated. During the entire course of treatment, you need to monitor the blood pressure level three times a day.
Stage II hypertension is supervised by complex therapy, including both beta-blockers and diuretics, and antispasmodics, ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), and potassium preparations. Of the b-blockers, atenolol, lokren, vetchin are effective, which are able to control the rapid heart rate, reduce the vascular resistance at the periphery. Also, these drugs are effective in diagnosed bradycardia, when the heart rate is reduced. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can neutralize the increased production of renin, which increases blood pressure. These are spirapril, ethanolol, methiopril, hood, and other drugs of this group. These funds activate the left heart ventricle, reducing hypertrophy, dilate the coronary vessels, thereby contributing to the normalization of peripheral blood flow. Calcium antagonists are designed to block calcium channels in the vascular walls, increasing their lumen. This is Corinfar, Amlodipine, Felodipine and other substances in this category of drugs. Calcium antagonists should be prescribed only by a therapist or cardiologist, since all these drugs can provoke swelling, dizziness and verbal pain. The complex of medicines is selected taking into account all possible side risks and contraindications. It should also be noted that long-term use of diuretics can cause a decrease in the level of potassium in the body (hypokalemia), so diuretics should be taken with panangin or asparcum. Diabetics, hypothiazide is not prescribed, it is replaced with veroshpiron.
Hypertension III stage - a severe form of the disease, which is characterized by resistance to traditional drugs. Therefore, treatment should be carefully selected taking into account all the individual characteristics of the patient. The therapeutic complex includes diuretics, most commonly potassium-sparing, such as amiloride or spironolactone, in addition, the use of peripheral vasodilators is shown. The pharmaceutical industry today produces a variety of combined effective drugs such as adelphan, brineridine, triresite. These drugs act on those patients whose body is either accustomed to monotherapy and stopped responding to it, or has significant contraindications to the use of standard treatment used for hypertension I and II stages.
Hypertension III severity is also controlled by vasodilators, such as phenygidine or corinfar, which is prescribed three times a day for 10 milligrams. Increasingly, vasodilators began to be replaced by alpha-adrenergic blockers - pratziol, fentalomine. Also, a combined agent combining the properties of alpha and beta-blockers - trandate (labetalol hydrochloride) can also be effective. This drug in combination with a diuretic is able to replace three or even four other less effective drugs. From the ACEI, captopril is indicated, which improves peripheral circulation and controls the level of renin. Captopril is taken three to four times a day, combining with a diuretic, which allows you to reduce blood pressure to the norm after a week.
Hypertension I and II degree is treated at home and does not require hospitalization. In rare cases, inpatient treatment is possible, in order to conduct analytical surveys and monitor health status. Hypertension, taking place in severe forms, is treated only in the hospital, in the cardiology department, the length of stay depends on the condition of the blood pressure and the performance of organs and systems of the body.