Depending on the nature of the course of the disease, three main forms of the disease are distinguished, in particular: mental, skin and dental hyperesthesia. At the psychical form of a pathology at the person the raised mental excitability, emotional instability, a constant irritability is observed.
With the cutaneous form of hyperesthesia, skin sensitivity increases, with dental, respectively, increases, tooth sensitivity, which is manifested by pain and discomfort. Especially intensively, these manifestations are observed with the use of hot, cold food, when you touch the tooth.
Hyperesthesia of the skin
Hyperesthesia of the skin means an increased sensitivity of the skin, which is a variant of pathology. Even minor irritations can cause an excessive reaction. In most cases, this pathology develops as a result of damage to the nervous system, or its excessive tension. Often this pathology is caused by the transferred infectious or inflammatory diseases.
Can be local or generalized. The sensitivity can be increased at one particular site, or at once on several. Sometimes an increase in sensitivity occurs immediately on the entire body.
At the heart of pathogenesis is a violation of the sensitivity of nerve endings, localized to the skin. This is most often observed against the background of pathological lesions of the skin, in particular, with burns, chemical irritation, the development of the infectious process, psoriasis, shingles. Often the sensitivity increases against the background of dermatitis, allergic reactions, neuritis, radiculitis.
Of particular interest is the central form of hyperesthesia, which is accompanied by increased sensitivity and excitability of nerve cells localized in the central nervous system. With this form of pathology, several parts of the skin are affected at once. Also quite often there are several combined forms of hyperesthesia, which smoothly flow one into another, or alternately appear. Such forms of pathology most often develop against the background of transferred infectious diseases. Especially often such a pathology is observed after the meningitis transferred, as well as against the background of the development of various tumors, both benign and malignant. Also often the cause is drug use, alcohol abuse, or long-term use of certain medicines.
There are several forms of cutaneous hyperesthesia. Quite often you have to face a thermal variant of such pathology. It is characterized by increased sensitivity of the skin to cold and heat. Even an irritant with a minimum exposure force can cause a very strong reaction. Usually it is localized at the site of the stimulus and is manifested by pain. Less common throughout the body or along the nerve.
It is impossible not to note a form such as polyesthesia. In this case, a single stimulus is perceived by man as a multiple stimulus, which acts immediately on several zones and areas of the body. In this case the pain is usually amplified many times, and does not correspond to the applied force of influence. Feelings last quite a long time.
There is also a form such as hyperpathy, in which patients complain of a violation of trophic processes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. So, a person has an excessive irritating dryness, in which the skin is peeling, there are foci of inflammation and tightness, a sharp itch, which often alternates with pain.
With this form of pathology of skin sensitivity, like dermographism, there is pain in the place of touch, which is replaced by fasting with a red or white spot that does not disappear for a long time.
In order to correctly diagnose, you need to undergo a neurological examination. In this case, skin tests are usually performed. In the area where the susceptibility is allegedly impaired, light injections are performed using a sharp object, then the indicators are recorded. Also, additional touching is made to the skin with varying degrees of pressure. In some cases, cold and hot test tubes are applied to the skin. If there is a suspicion of the development of hyperesthesia of central origin, resort to diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging. If suspected of exposure to toxic substances, it is necessary to conduct a toxicological study of the blood.
Specific methods of treatment and prevention do not exist. In some cases, analgesics, antihistamines, drugs aimed at reducing the excitability of the nervous system are used. As the only preventive measure, timely treatment of manifestations and getting rid of bad habits can be considered.
Hyperesthesia of enamel, necks, hard tissues of teeth
When the tooth enamel is broken, the sensitivity increases, which is due to the fact that the particles of the substance penetrate the inside of the tooth and cause irritation of the nerve. As a result, pain reaction occurs, or discomfort appears. Most often a person reacts to cold or hot influences. This is the so-called temperature sensitivity. Also, the reaction to sweet is particularly acute. Usually, this sensitivity is helped by special toothpastes designed for sensitive teeth.
Nodular hyperesthesia is an increased sensitivity that develops in the region of the neck of the tooth. This is a place in which a fairly high level of innervation. A lot of nerves come up here, so at the slightest contact with them, discomfort develops, less often pain. It is necessary to consult a doctor. It may be necessary to sanitize the oral cavity. Less often, special medical or orthopedic manipulations are required to reduce pain sensitivity.
Often develops hypersensitivity as a result of damage to hard tissues in the tooth. This leads to the fact that microorganisms, food particles penetrate into the tooth, resulting in irritation of the receptive receptors of the dental tissue. Pain can spread to other areas. In this case, the main source of pain, as a rule, is lost.
The reason for the development of the mental form of this pathology is the violation of the state of the central or peripheral nervous system, the increased sensitivity of receptors that perceive the stimulus. It usually develops against a background of nervous overstrain, stress, overwork, a lot of unresolved problems, conflicts. The consequence is most often a vegetative neurosis, which is accompanied by a disease of various organs and tissues. The cause is organic disorders in the autonomic nervous system, or as a result of a violation of its functional state. In this case, in most cases, with an objective examination of the lesion of the nervous system is not observed, there is only a violation of its function.
In a normal state, the nervous system is represented by a complex of interconnected cells that provide innervation of all organs and systems of the body, blood and lymph vessels, glands. In pathology, the functioning of all organs goes out of the control of the nervous system, as a result of which the basic processes are not subject to human control. As a rule, functional disturbance of the hypothalamus is observed, since this is the main center that processes signals coming from the receptors. If its function is violated, signal processing becomes incorrect, resulting in erroneous reactions.
As a rule, an increase in sensitivity is also accompanied by other concomitant pathologies, such as increased metabolic processes, an increase in the level of excitability of tissues. In this case, the body mobilizes all the forces and directs them to active work, even when a person rests. The regulation of functions during sleep is disturbed, the ability to restore energy reserves of the body decreases. Gradually, violations concern the behavior of a person, his personal characteristics.
Hyperesthesia of face and head
This is one of the varieties of the mental form of hyperesthesia. As a rule, it is accompanied by a violation of nervous regulation. At the same time, the organic structure of the nervous system is within normal limits, only the functional state is disrupted. It can occur under the influence of various factors, both exogenous and endogenous origin. The disorder of the nervous system can be caused by various pathological conditions. In particular, the cause may be a recently transferred infectious disease, an inflammatory process. Often, hyperesthesia of the face and head leads to various dental diseases, damage to the trigeminal nerve.
Often manifested by a complex of symptoms, which also include intense headache, dizziness. In this case, there may be changes in blood pressure, suddenly there may be nausea, vomiting. Severe forms of the disease are often accompanied by pain in the joints and muscles, symptoms of intoxication of the body. The hearing may fall, the sight may be disturbed.
There are several forms of this pathology. In the vegetative-cutaneous form of pathology, the sensitivity of the facial skin increases dramatically. The skin acquires a blue shade, becomes marbled. Often there is severe itching, the skin becomes dry, or vice versa, excessively moisturized.
In the vegetative-trophic form of the disease, trophic mimic muscles, skin are broken, wrinkles are formed, the structure and sensitivity of the skin is disturbed. Over time, itching can develop, trophic ulcers, eczema.
The reasons for this state can be many. It can be individual features of the body, the consequences of the transferred diseases and pathological conditions, exposure to prolonged stress or overexertion, trauma and various mechanical damages. Often the cause is grief associated with the loss of loved ones, or excessive fatigue, constant lack of sleep.
The essence of this pathology consists in the increased, excessive perception of sensory stimuli and increased sensitivity to them. So, a person can perceive the usual, habitual for him sound as too loud, irritating and disrupting a normal mental state. Visual images can be perceived as too bright, contrasting. Quite often, even the usual familiar smell becomes harsh, suffocating, causes a lot of negative reactions.
Hyperesthesia of the pharynx
The danger of this condition is that a person has an increased sensitivity of the pharynx, in which a person feels that he suffocates, he does not have enough air. Pseudostenocardia may develop, pseudo-obstruction. Often the act of swallowing is disturbed. Along with this, violations of other visceral functions also occur, in particular, peristalsis and intestinal motility may be disrupted, bile outflow is disturbed, bladder function is disrupted, stool is broken. This leads to a general disturbance of metabolic processes in the body, as a result of which pathology can progress and acquire a different form. Often hyperesthesia begins with an increase in the reaction of the pharynx, and subsequently, becomes common, spreads to the entire body.
Vegetative-allergic symptom is a rather dangerous variety of this pathology. This is also a rather dangerous condition, which can result in Quinck's swelling or anaphylactic shock. Less dangerous manifestations of this symptom are pathologies such as allergic rhinitis, food allergies, urticaria.
Hyperesthesia of the legs
Appears in the form of hypersensitivity to the legs. It can be accompanied by swelling, a violation of normal blood circulation. Stagnant phenomena often develop. Usually appears against the background of a common neurosis. At the same time, signs of neurasthenia appear first. Often such violations are observed against the background of brain injuries, or injuries to the limbs.
Hyperaesthesia of the cornea
This condition, as a rule, begins with conjunctivitis, increased sensitivity of the eye to the effect of external stimuli. Quite often there is a sensation of a foreign body in the eye. Complication is a violation of vision, a violation of the structure of the eye.