Coronaviruses have long been known to science. This is a rather large-scale viral family that can provoke the development of various pathologies - mild variations like the common cold, and the most severe ones (in particular, such complex coronavirus infections as the Middle East respiratory syndrome MERS-CoV, acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV). The last known causative agent, the coronavirus COVID-19, is a new culture of microorganisms that has not yet been identified in humans.
The life cycle of the coronavirus COVID-19 does not need DNA, and this is its significant difference from other RNA-containing infections that have already been studied (for example, HIV). This, in particular, explains the ineffectiveness of antiretroviral treatment used to suppress the development of HIV. The carrier of genetic data in the coronavirus is not DNA, but a single RNA strand lasting 20-30,000 nucleotides. This means that the virus protein is produced by the affected cell immediately on RNA, which disguises itself as matrix RNA of the carrier. After penetration into the cell, the virus produces a specific enzyme substance, RNA polymerase, which creates copies of the virus genome. Next, the affected cell produces the remaining proteins, and new virions begin to develop on it.
Microscopic examination of the viral particle has the form of an oval with a mass of tiny spines formed by the S-protein. This particular protein plays the role of a kind of magnet, binding to a target on the cell surface in the affected body.
According to the World Health Organization, the incubation period for COVID-19 coronavirus disease averages 2-14 days. However, Chinese doctors have already stated that there were cases when this period was extended to 27 days. Moreover, an infected person is able to spread the infection from the first day of incubation.
Other interesting facts about the coronavirus COVID-19:
- Coronavirus received this name in connection with the specific configuration of the protein compound resembling a corona.
- Coronavirus COVID-19 was found to be less pathogenic compared to the previous similar SARS virus, which "raged" in 2003 and led to the death of 10% of sick people (for comparison: about 3% of sick people die from COVID-19).
- According to experts, the incidence should decrease with the arrival of heat, since coronavirus develops better and persists in cold conditions.
- The main danger of COVID-19 coronavirus is the high probability of lung damage. Most often, death occurs from the severe course of pneumonia.
- Information on immunity after coronavirus infection has not yet been reported. At the very beginning, doctors talked about the formation of acquired immunity, but then several cases of re-illness were registered in people who had the COVID-19 coronavirus. Therefore, to date, the issue of immunity remains open.
The information announced by the Ministry of Health states: this type of coronavirus is transmitted by airborne droplets from one infected organism to another. 
People are considered the most contagious when they show symptoms. Distribution is possible before people develop symptoms.
How easy is the virus to spread? Spread from contact with infected surfaces or objects. It is possible that a person may become infected with COVID-19 by touching the surface or object on which the virus is located, and then touching its own mouth or nose.
The fecal-oral type of transmission is also allowed: for example, in Hong Kong, people were infected through the sewage system and unwashed hands.
There is no reason to believe that any animals, including domestic animals, can be the source of infection with this new coronavirus. To date, the CDC has not received any reports of the disease of domestic animals or other animals COVID-19. There is currently no evidence that pets can distribute COVID-19. However, since animals can transmit other diseases to humans, it is always helpful to wash their hands. 
Coronavirus spreads faster. Normal flu has a reproductive number of about 1.3, which means that every infected person can infect an average of 1.3 people. This number is used to measure the potential of the epidemic. When it is larger than one, the disease tends to spread. In 2009, during the H1N1 flu pandemic, the virus had a reproductive number of 1.5. Available studies show that the reproductive number of coronavirus is from 2 to 3.
Like the influenza virus, coronaviruses are enveloped viruses, which makes them susceptible to environmental conditions such as high temperatures, drying out and sunlight. The virus survives in a drop of 28 days if the temperature is below 10 degrees, and only one day when the temperature exceeds 30 degrees.