Symptoms of almost all respiratory diseases include sneezing, and allergic sneezing and stuffy nose are almost the main signs of hay fever.
To the painful conditions in which sneezing and runny nose, as well as temperature and sneezing are leading symptoms, include an acute respiratory viral infection (usually caused by rhinovirus) and influenza. Response to infection - sneezing with colds - also causes rhinorrhea (a watery rhinitis), which quickly enough passes into a dingy rhinitis. In addition to rhinitis, with chills, sneezing and coughing occur, as well as pain in the throat, and then acute nasopharyngitis (or rhinopharyngitis) is diagnosed , and in advanced cases - sinusitis.
In addition to rhinovirus infection, nasopharyngitis or influenza, sneezing in a child is accompanied by infectious diseases such as chickenpox (chicken pox) and measles.
Fungal infections as a sneeze trigger are rare, and are usually found in patients with impaired immune function or diabetic ketoacidosis.
Itching in the nose and sneezing with allergies - including dust mites, pollen (seasonal allergies to plant pollen) - a result of sensitization of the body, which leads to the formation of persistent immune hyperreactivity of nasal mucosa. Studies have shown that in patients with an allergic rhinitis that accompanies itching and sneezing, the number of m-cholinergic receptors in the nasal mucosa is increased, and the density of beta and alpha-1-adrenergic receptors is significantly reduced. But the main cause of allergic sneezing is the release of histamine, which acts on the h1 and h2 receptors in the nose, as well as the stimulation of the sinus nerve caused by nasal congestion in allergies.
A trigger that causes frequent sneezing in adults and children (especially in the first year of life) can be reduced indoor air humidity (for example, when the air conditioner is used), house dust, mold on walls, household chemicals, tobacco smoke, etc. It should be borne in mind that chronic or frequent sneezing in 90% of cases is associated with an allergy, and its seizures occur even in the absence of direct exposure to allergic agents, which aggravates the problem.
A characteristic feature of allergic rhinitis is sneezing in the morning - on awakening. Nasal congestion, watery discharge from the nose, sneezing and lacrimation, itching in the eyes (especially in the late evening) are also common symptoms of this pathology. A similar clinical picture is observed with non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome.
However, as noted by otolaryngologists, excessive dryness in the nose, as well as polyps in the nasal cavity also provokes sneezing in the morning.
And such diseases as vasomotor rhinitis and atrophic rhinitis, as well as congenital or acquired curvature of the nasal septum cause sneezing without a cold.
Much less frequent sneezing without a cold appears when the stomach is full immediately after a plentiful meal. Physicians consider such phenomena as genetically caused disorder.
It is noteworthy that sneezing during pregnancy, which complains many future mothers, is due to all the same hormones, the development of which changes in the process of bearing a child. The fact is that in the nasal mucosa in women there are beta-estrogen receptors (ERbeta), so an increase in the synthesis of estrogen during pregnancy and causes the reaction of these receptors and, accordingly, a slight itch in the nose and sneezing. In addition, edema of the nasal mucosa is provoked by progesterone, which increases the production of mucin.
Since many muscle groups are strained, there is often such a nuisance as incontinence when sneezing (especially if the bladder is full at the time of sneezing).
Iatrogenic causes of sneezing include a variety of medications that irritate the nasal mucosa. First of all, they are drops-decongestants for the nose, with the help of which they struggle with its stuffiness. Further follows, NSAIDs, beta-blockers, diuretics and antidepressants. In women of childbearing age, sneezing attacks are possible with prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives.