^

Health

You are here

Back pain

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 17.06.2019
Fact-checked
х

All iLive content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible.

We have strict sourcing guidelines and only link to reputable media sites, academic research institutions and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses ([1], [2], etc.) are clickable links to these studies.

If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please select it and press Ctrl + Enter.

It is almost impossible to meet a person who did not complain of pain in the back, or at least a feeling of heaviness in the lower back. The back "pays" for our ability to walk vertically, for our ability to work for a long time sitting, for the weight of cargo in hand and insufficiently long horizontal rest.

For someone, back pain has become a familiar companion, someone met her for the first time, but all people try to understand as quickly as possible what exactly caused the pain and to ease their condition as soon as possible.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]

Causes of back pain

Back pain can be primary and chronic in time of occurrence, as well as primary and secondary, depending on the cause of the pain.

The primary pain in the lower back is caused by the damage to the vertebral column itself - changes in vertebral joints, changes in intervertebral discs, lesions of tendons or ligaments.

Secondary back pain is diagnosed in the event of injuries, abnormalities in the functioning of internal organs, infectious or neoplastic changes. Also, secondary pain refers to the pain of the lower back during pregnancy.

The most frequent causes of pain are various inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs (usually ovaries), tumor processes, malnutrition of the internal organs due to damage to the cardiovascular system, as well as disruption of the nervous system. When the disease of the internal organs is most often the pain in the lower back indicates problems with the kidneys.

Also persistent pains appear with muscle spasm, protusion or hernia discs, with degenerative changes in the spine, inflammatory processes in the joints, arthrosis. When diagnosed according to the frequency of detection, the osteochondrosis of the spine is in the first place, and the pain in the lower back is a consequence of the infringement of nerve fibers.

If the nerve endings are impaired in the loin, then lower down the path of innervation can be found areas that have lost (or decreased) their sensitivity, in severe cases, the nervous process is affected so much that any reflex in the limb can be lost from the nerve damage. The pain in this case is "shooting, sharp", the person strives to occupy a comfortable posture and the body is bent, the attempt to make movement meets resistance from the muscles and the person freezes, bound by pain. Osteochondrosis is a manifestation of degenerative processes in the spine.

If disks (ligaments, the entire joint as a whole) are involved in the process of pain syndrome formation, then sharp, shooting pains are called "lumbago". Pain in the lumbar with lumbago occurs when the nerve receptors are irritated in the ligament wall, forming a bag for the disc. Completely reflexively, the muscles fix the body in the posture in which they were seized by a fit of pain, any attempt to change the posture is accompanied by strong, "tearing" pains. Quite often, these pains pass independently, but in the case of prolonged irritation or dislocation of the disk, it is possible to irradiate the pain along the nervous path downward to the external surface of the thigh.

Pain or change in the sensitivity of the thigh surface with lumbago should be distinguished from pain in sciatica - sciatica nerve inflammation. When the rootlets are injured in the lumbosacral area, the inflammation of the damaged fibers is manifested in bright, burning pains in the thigh along the nerve fibers, reaching the ankle and then to the fingers. The pain is so severe that it requires blockade with analgesics.

Sometimes during pregnancy, there is a drawing pain in the lower back, which is associated with weight gain, gait change and a redistribution of the load from the changed internal organs. The pain in this case can not be intolerant, warping - in these cases, not pregnancy is the cause of discomfort.

trusted-source[7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]

Diseases that provoke back pain

If you have stretched ligaments, lower back pain can range from mild to severe. The causes of stretching are often traumas or prolonged excessive physical exertion. Often spinal cord ligaments occur along with muscle stretch, which can cause swelling and bruising. In such cases, it is necessary, first of all, to carry out anesthesia therapy, you can take a tablet of Analgin or Ibuprofen, which also has an anti-inflammatory effect. The damaged area should be treated with Fastus-gel, Finalgon, Indometacin, Diclofenac or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointment used for stretching. On top you need to impose a warm bandage. Loads during the rehabilitation period are contraindicated. In the first minutes after the injury, it is advisable to apply ice to the affected area, with further treatment, on the contrary, heat is shown.

Displacement of vertebrae - a fairly common and insidious pathology, because a person does not always immediately feel pain in the lower back. The reason for this problem can be a forced long stay in a sedentary position, as well as various kinds of trauma. To ease the symptoms, it is recommended to rest, strengthen the abdominal muscles, anti-inflammatory therapy, the patient is assigned to wear a special corset, fixing the bone in the damaged area.

A very common cause of back pain is osteochondrosis. Due to dystrophic changes in the articular cartilages, intervertebral discs are affected. If this process is localized in the lumbar region, respectively, this leads to pain in the lower back. Treatment is appointed conservative - massage and physiotherapy procedures, manual therapy course, traction of the spine, therapeutic exercise.

The intervertebral hernia is another factor that provokes back pain. As a result of the displacement of the intervertebral disc, accompanied by rupture of the fibrous ring, severe back pains radiating to the buttocks and thighs. This pathology can be successfully cured if you turned in time to a specialist - orthopedist, traumatologist, vertebrologist, also it will help to prevent the adverse consequences of this disease. Non-surgical treatment of the intervertebral hernia consists primarily in unloading the spine, neutralizing functional blockages, maintaining muscle tone, which helps to stop the progression of the disease, reduces pain and improves metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

Pain in the lower back of the pulling character can occur in women in the premenstrual period and during menstruation. If the pains are too strong, you can take a pill of anesthetic (for example, No-shpa, Analgin or Imet).

Gynecological diseases are also capable of causing painful pain in the lower back. Adnexitis, or inflammation of the uterine appendages, can provoke the irradiation of pain from the lower abdomen to the lower back. There may be accompanying symptoms such as fever, vomiting, nausea. To promote the development of adnexitis can prolonged hypothermia, sexual intercourse during menstruation, as well as without protection, non-compliance with the norms of intimate hygiene, chronic infections, etc. The disease is diagnosed by a gynecologist. As a treatment for this pain in the lower back is usually prescribed a course of antibiotics.

Periodic low back pain can be chronic and can be the result of a prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position during sitting or a twisted posture. If you are forced to stay in an uncomfortable position for a long time, try to stand up and warm up periodically.

Such a disorder, like renal colic, can make itself felt in the form of irradiating pain in the lower back, as well as in the abdomen and genitals. It arises rapidly, has a sharp paroxysmal character. After the attack subsides, the patient has dull pain in the lower back. This pathology requires surgical intervention.

Causes of back pain

trusted-source[13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22]

Diagnosis of back pain

To clarify the processes that cause pain in the lower back, it is necessary to undergo examination on the apparatus of MRI, CT or X-ray equipment. In the photographs, both degenerative processes and various kinds of curvature, displacement and infringement are quite clearly visible. The state of the disks (presence of flattening, protrusion or outflow of the disk core) is also clearly visible.

Diagnosis of back pain

trusted-source[23], [24], [25], [26], [27]

Treatment of back pain

Depending on the specified diagnosis and the patient's condition, treatment can be medicated and non-drug. Drug therapy involves blockade with analgesics, the use of hormones, vitamins. Non-pharmacological - use of knowledge of acupuncture, manual therapy, therapeutic gymnastics.

However, the extent of the violations can be such that they sometimes resort to surgical intervention. To start the examination, you should consult a surgeon who will help clarify the nature and cause of back pain.

The most common practice is to treat back pain:

  • a state of rest for several days (three to five);
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs);
  • muscle relaxants;
  • courses of massage and manual therapy;
  • spinal traction;
  • physiotherapy;
  • physiotherapeutic procedures;
  • psychocorrection as part of complex therapy (sedatives or antidepressants).

Treatment of back pain

How to prevent pain in the penis?

To prevent back pain, it is necessary to minimize factors such as sedentary lifestyle, bad habits, in particular, abuse of nicotine, excessive physical exertion, hypothermia, trauma, overweight.

Back pain is very diverse and can signal a lot of pathologies. Only a timely consultation of a competent specialist vertebrologist will help to understand the reasons and keep your health.

It is important to know!

WHO statistics show that pain in the lumbar muscles at different periods of life, in varying degrees of intensity, is experienced by 90% of people, that is, practically every one of us. Read more..

!
Found an error? Select it and press Ctrl + Enter.
You are reporting a typo in the following text:
Simply click the "Send typo report" button to complete the report. You can also include a comment.