The answer to the question why the body is covered with goose bumps lies quite deep, at the very sources of human development. According to the evolutionary theory of Darwin, man is nothing but a more developed animal in every respect. So, he has the same reflexes as other animals. Many of the body's reactions, as unnecessary, disappeared, and others can remind themselves of themselves from time to time.
What is goosebumps? This appearance on the skin of pimples in the area of the hair bulb, because of which the hair itself is lifted and becomes perpendicular to the skin, resembling the animal's furrowed hair. In the animal world, this reaction is protective. Remember at least a hedgehog or a cat, which for a while seems to increase in size and seem more formidable.
A man with a poor hair covering such a reaction is no longer necessary. Nevertheless, at times of a strong emotional outburst or exposure to cold, the body is sometimes lost, not knowing how to respond to such a strong irritant factor, and recalls a defensive reaction that, although lost its importance in the course of evolution, but still remains in biological memory .
A similar reaction can occur when a person experiences strong emotional experiences (this may be ecstasy or horror, intense excitement or sexual arousal), freezes or experiences sudden pain. The appearance of specific sensations is associated with a sharp release of a large amount of adrenaline into the blood, which in turn is considered the strongest neurotransmitter. It helps to narrow the vessels of the skin and leads to muscle tonus near the hair bulb, which we see in the form of small tubercles in the hair growth zone.
Since almost all the reactions of the body are controlled by the nervous system (and in particular the cerebral cortex, which carries out both conscious and subconscious reactions), the influence of negative factors on it can have a response in the form of running goose bumps even at normal temperatures and a stable emotional state. Such irritating factors include head and body injuries, nerve compression, tissue hypoxia.
To draw a line between physiological and pathological reactions is often not so simple. Even the tiniest nuances play a role here. Take, for example, goose bumps from the touch. Such a reaction can be caused by touching particularly sensitive areas of the body or by pressing on the reflex points. Nevertheless, the touch of any part of the skin of a loved one also causes a feeling that all over the body are running creepy. If in the first case we are dealing only with local irritation of nerve endings, then in the second case, the emotionally sensitive sphere also turns on.
But what about the situation when the prickles on the body arise from the touch of an outsider, in relation to which a person does not feel high feelings or fear? Here, the pathological reaction associated with neurosis is most likely to occur, as a result of which the nervous system reacts very sharply to any stimuli. Constant crawl on the body when you touch your own skin can also be attributed to a neurotic reaction.
The appearance of goosebumps on the body can be seen in people, especially sensitive to tickling. It is worth tickling them behind the ear, and the creeps will scatter all over the body, as a response to the irritation of the nerve endings.
But on the other hand, tickling (as sometimes called an itch on the skin) and goose bumps are symptoms of paresthesia (impaired sensitivity), the causes of which often lie in a certain pathology of health.
Pathological causes of a feeling of goosebumps
If an emotionally calm person who is not exposed to cold or heat, periodically gets crawl on the body, this is an occasion to reflect on what is associated with inadequate response of the nervous system and what causes it. After all, creeps on the surface of the body can indicate certain abnormalities inside it, which do not go as far as the creeps themselves.
Deficiency of vitamins. One of the most common causes of this symptom is banal avitaminosis. Deficiency of vitamins of group В (В1, В2, В6, В12) leads to malfunctions in work of nervous system, after all it depends on balance of these vitamins its functionality.
With a lack of vitamins B, C and D, local immunity also suffers. The skin loses its protective properties and becomes prone to irritation. Vessels lose their elasticity and burst, which leads to a violation of blood circulation and deterioration of the blood supply of various tissues, which causes their hypoxia. In this case, the brain and the nervous system suffer in the first place.
In addition to crawling on the body, avitaminosis can be manifested by changes in the appearance and characteristics of the skin, the onset of allergic reactions, burning of the skin, severe weakness and fatigue, impaired appetite, memory and attention impairment, sleep disturbances, limb cramps, dyspnea, edematous syndrome, etc.
Deficiency of microelements. Similar symptoms along with abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract (impaired appetite, nausea sometimes with vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) may also occur with a deficiency in the body of magnesium.
When there is a calcium deficiency in the blood caused by a decrease in parathyroid gland function, the following symptomatology is observed: soreness with contraction of the muscles, omission of the corners of the mouth and eyelids, colic in the abdomen, fainting, impaired vision, deterioration of the skin, hair, nails, teeth, vomiting, diarrhea and goose bumps.
Drug therapy. Causing the appearance of goosebumps on the body can also take some medications. Such popular drugs as "Ofloxacin" (fluoroquinolone antibiotic antibiotic), "Cycloserine" (antibiotic for the treatment of tuberculosis), "Isoniazid" and "Prothionamide" (anti-tuberculosis drugs), drugs for epilepsy and hypertension have, as a side effect, skin.
Often the appearance of crawling on the body, accompanied by other suspicious symptoms indicates the development of diseases of the nervous system and brain.
Multiple sclerosis. If a pleasant shiver in the body and the tingles are associated with positive emotional experiences, then paresthesia (goosebumps usually in the face, numbness, tingling) combined with tremors and weakness of the hands, gait disturbance, impaired vision and sound quality can indicate with great certainty such a dangerous autoimmune pathology, like multiple sclerosis. In this case, the body itself destroys the myelin sheath of the nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord, resulting in the appearance of the corresponding symptomatology.
Stroke. Hemorrhage in the brain is the result of blockage and rupture of the vessels of the brain. Acute disturbance of cerebral circulation causes oxygen starvation of the main organ of the nervous system, hence headaches and dizziness, goose bumps, fainting. Later, symptoms such as skewed facial features, partial paralysis of the muscles, and discrepancy in the size of the eyes are also observed. The person speaks badly and does not understand someone else's speech.
Craniocerebral injury. The appearance of crawling sensation on the body, as a symptom of paresthesia, in this case can be observed both on one side of the body, and on both at the same time, depending on which part of the brain was damaged.
Guillain-Barre syndrome. With this pathology, the autotel body is damaged by the spinal cord roots, as a result of which the person first loses sensitivity to the body, and then loses its motor abilities. First, goose bumps appear in the region of the upper limbs, and then very quickly the sensations spread to the legs and chest.
Tumor processes in the brain. Shivers on the skin and paresthesia in this case are observed in the area of the hands and face. By the way, a similar symptomatology can occur with a migraine with an aura.
Vegeto-vascular dystonia. Shivers on the body with VSD are one of the neurological symptoms, indicating an imbalance in the tone of the sympathetic and parasympathetic departments of the central nervous system. Many patients experience headaches, become irritable and prone to depression, feel tingling in the face and hands, and complain of incomprehensible chills and goose bumps all over the body. Plus, all this can be accompanied by caryological symptoms that only aggravate the condition of patients with VSD.
Neuropathies of different localization. If the nerve is affected in the neck and occiput, then the shivers appear in the vicinity of the area where the nerve was squashed, injured or otherwise damaged. With neuropathy of the musculoskeletal or ulnar nerve, you can feel the creeps in the area of the elbow and the lateral part of the forearm. If the patient complains that the abdomen is hurting and crawling along the body in the pelvic region and hip, then it is most likely a neuropathy of the lumbar plexus. Especially if the symptoms become more pronounced, if the elongated leg is lifted up.
With neuropathy of the femoral nerve, goose bumps appear in the lumbar region, inner and anterior surfaces of the thigh and lower leg, accompanied by pain in the groin area. Damage to the subcutaneous nerve is manifested by crawling, pain and numbness in the skin on the inner surface of the shin and foot, down to the thumb.
The cause of the crawling on the body can be various pathologies of the heart and blood vessels. On heart pathology indicates such a symptom as the appearance of goosebumps on the left side of the body. And if they also attach pain in the chest, giving to the left arm or shoulder, dizziness, feelings of anxiety or fear, one can suspect a myocardial infarction.
If a person has goosebumps and chills, not associated with changes in body temperature, plus this does not happen quickly, but lasts about 10 minutes, the cause of this clinical picture may be a violation of the heart rhythm (arrhythmia).
Chills and chills on the body can have and not at all cardiac reasons.
Causes to cause goosebumps on the body and fever. The difference in body temperature and the environment causes chills, because the air temperature now seems to be lower than it really is.
Take, for example, goose bumps on the body for a cold. The organism, being involved in the fight against viruses and bacteria, deliberately increases the temperature of the body, thereby causing a partial death. A rise in body temperature in turn causes chills and the appearance of so-called goosebumps.
If the shivers appear on the body and hands, you can determine the cause of this phenomenon by paying attention to the spine. A similar symptom can be observed in pathologies such as osteochondrosis, spondylolisthesis (displacement of the vertebrae), cervical tumor and spine trauma.
With osteochondrosis, when the nerves and blood vessels are compressed by the affected vertebrae of a modified form, the goose bumps can be felt not only in the body and hands, but also in the legs. In this case, there may be a loss of sensitivity of some part of the skin, chilliness of the upper and lower extremities.
In patients with diabetes mellitus, a symptom in the form of loss of skin sensitivity and running of the goosebumps along the limbs and limbs may indicate the development of such complications as diabetic polyneuropathy.
Strangely enough, but the crawl on the body can be a symptom of inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs. For example, with genyantritis crawling not so much throughout the body as in the head, usually on the scalp. A similar sensation against the background of fever and bursting pain in the sinuses of the nose is felt by a person infected with the parainfluenza virus, a week after infection.
The sensation of running creeps on the legs can appear with varicose veins and restless leg syndrome, a frequent cause of which is renal failure. Shivers all over the body and itching can appear on the background of hormonal failures caused by disruption of the endocrine glands (thyroid gland, adrenal glands), as well as against the background of chronic alcoholism. The appearance of imaginary "insects" in different parts of the body can be caused by inflammation of the muscles in the area around which there is activity of goosebumps.
Chronic goose bumps
There is such a pathology, in which the human body seems always covered with goosebumps. The name of this disease is hyperkeratosis, and it manifests itself in the increased content of keratin cells in the stratum corneum. Thus, the epidermis thickens, and the hair follicles thicken, protruding above the surface of the skin.
One of the varieties of the pathology of the skin is follicular hyperkeratosis, in which a rash appears on the human body that looks like a goosebump. The keratinized skin begins to peel with time, its scales fall into the hair follicles and block them. The follicles become inflamed and blush, which is manifested as a small reddish rash.
Places of lesion usually become elbows and knees, buttocks, hips (especially outside). The affected skin becomes particularly sensitive to thermal and mechanical irritations.
Risk factors for the development of hyperkeratosis can be considered hereditary predisposition, lack of vitamins A and C in the body, use of hard water for skin hygiene, impaired personal hygiene, exposure to cold and wind, drying up the skin, metabolic pathologies, etc.
Treatment of pathology is long, based on the fight against the disease that caused hyperkeratosis, and improving the skin condition. However, with age, the symptoms are smoothed out, and the skin acquires a normal appearance.
Goosebumps in women
Women have more reasons for the appearance of goosebumps than in men. This is partly due to the greater emotionality and sensitivity of the weaker sex compared to the strong one. For example, such emotional reaction as delight, against which goose-tails most often go, can truly be called feminine. Men are more restrained in this regard.
Strong excitement and fears are also more characteristic of the female sex, which means that the emotional creeps in women appear more often than in men.
Another important reason for the appearance of this symptom can be called hormonal restructuring of the body. Men may experience hormonal failures at the age when puberty occurs, or against the background of pathologies of the endocrine system, which again occur more frequently in women than in men.
But women have hormonal failures much more often: in adolescence, when a girl becomes a girl, during pregnancy, on the eve and during menopause. The appearance of goosebumps on the body before and during menstruation is also associated with a violation of the hormonal balance.
In pregnancy, the tingles can be related to both hormonal changes in the body and some of the pathologies listed above, so it is very important to pay attention to other symptoms. For example, a chill that appears in the form of goosebumps occurs most often against a background of overheating or overcooling, with an increase in temperature indicating a development of pathological processes in the body.
The cause of the goosebumps in women may be a lack of vitamins and trace elements due to malnutrition. The practice of reducing weight with the help of hard diets, impoverishing the body, is especially widespread in the female circle. The creeps on the body in this case appear together with unsightly skin changes (dryness, pallor or grayish-yellow unhealthy hue, peeling), deterioration of the hair, nails, teeth and other symptoms of avitaminosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and other deficient conditions.
Goose bumps in the baby's body
Babies are our joy and the meaning of life. It is clear that the parents of the baby, especially mothers, react so sharply to the appearance of strange, repetitive symptoms, such as creeps on the body.
More often the appearance of creeps on the skin of a child is associated with hypothermia. If the baby is frozen, he can start, hiccough, it gives goose bumps on his skin, and hairs stand on end. However, similar symptoms can be observed even when the baby pissed.
If the chills on the baby's skin appear from overheating (heat exposure, wrapping), then their occurrence is associated with an increase in body temperature (reaction to the temperature difference). The child can become restless or vice versa flaccid, experiencing headaches.
Murals can be observed on sensitive children's skin exposed to irritation (prolonged contact with moisture, rough mechanical action).
Imperfection of the immune system of the child determines an increased tendency to allergic manifestations. Therefore, sometimes on the skin of a child you can observe a small allergic rash, accompanied by itching (allergy or diathesis), which reminds goose bumps.
The appearance of the above-described goose bumps in the body of a child can be called a physiological reaction that does not indicate any pathology. However, sometimes such a symptom is a characteristic feature of neurological pathologies, brain diseases, skin and autoimmune diseases developing at such a young age (hyperkeratosis, red hair follicles, vasculitis, epilepsy, neurotic disorders, meningitis, etc.). Shivers on the body of the child should not be confused with pathological skin rash in infectious pathologies (chicken pox, rubella, measles, scarlet fever).