The purpose of therapeutic measures is determined by the nature of the underlying disease. In schizophrenia and epilepsy, pharmacotherapy is the main treatment. Such patients, in general, take medicines throughout their lives, which allows them to maintain its quality at a practically normal level.
The main drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia are neuroleptics. The antipsychotic effect of this group of drugs is realized through the blockade of central dopaminergic and α-adrenoreceptors. Drugs in this group have the ability to influence the frequency and intensity of nucleation of nerve impulses in different parts of the central nervous system and their transfer to the periphery. They are able to influence the metabolic processes in the cerebral cortex, improve cognitive functions and activate thinking.
Depending on the observed symptoms, different generations of drugs are used (Aminazine, Clozapine, Olanzapine, Risperidone, Sertindol, Aripiprazole), all of them have a wide range of side effects. Their direct effects are associated with the main neuroplegic side effects they cause — muscle numbness, persistent muscle spasms, tremors in the limbs, and other extrapyramidal reactions. Especially typical antipsychotics are famous for such effects, newer drugs (atypical) drug parkinsonism cause less and are more suitable for long-term (permanent) use. They are better tolerated and provide a low incidence of side effects (extrapyramidal, hyperprolactinemia, weight gain, cardiovascular dysfunction, and others).
Neuroleptics enhance the effect of other sedatives, inhibits various reflex activity, providing the physiological processes of homeostatic regulation of the functions of internal organs.
The absolute contraindications to the use of antipsychotics are severe systemic pathologies of the brain and spinal cord, inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the liver and kidneys, decompensated heart disease, impaired hematopoiesis, myxedema, and thrombosis of blood vessels.
Dosing drugs individually, to deviate from the treatment regimen proposed by the doctor is not recommended. When the course is interrupted, withdrawal occurs, so the drug should be withdrawn gradually and under the supervision of a physician. You can not change the dosage yourself.
If a patient has symptoms of depression, antidepressants are added to the treatment regimen. In the presence of comorbidities, appropriate therapy is prescribed, based on known drug interactions.
Epileptics are shown anticonvulsants - Lamotrigine, Finlepsin, valporoaty.
Lamotrigine usually has a rapid anticonvulsant effect, moreover, this drug does not adversely affect the ability to remember information, concentration and mental abilities, like other anticonvulsants. It interrupts the transmission of nerve impulses, providing the release of an aliphatic amino acid - glutamate, the excess of which provokes the occurrence of seizures. Eliminating epileptic seizures, the medicine relieves the patient from the symptoms characteristic of the prodromal phase, including superrung.
Another anticonvulsant Finlepsin has a more pronounced anticonvulsant effect, in addition, relieves hyperkinesis (which manifestations include mentism). In addition to anticonvulsant activity, the drug enhances the effects of antidepressants and increases the activity of neurotransmitters responsible for the stabilization of emotions, emancipation and productive brain activity.
For disorders of cerebral blood circulation, hypoxia, the effects of intoxication and injury, nootropic activity preparations are used.
Psychocorrection is also used - coursework with a psychologist is conducted in the form of group classes or according to an individual program. They are focused on restoring impaired thinking functions.